ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ

Alif Cahya Setiyadi

Abstract


ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ، ﻓﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ. ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ، ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ. ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ، ﺗﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻧﻈﺮﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ. ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻫﻼﻧﻴﺔ. ﻓﻤﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﱂ ﺗﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ، ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺄﰊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻓﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ، ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﲔ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ. ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﻷﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻬﻢ.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21111/lisanudhad.v1i1.435

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