Efek konsumsi bahan makanan yang mengandung beban glikemik terhadap kadar glukosa darah

Elida Soviana, Citra Pawestri

Abstract

Latar Belakang: Gejala dan diagnosa diabetes melitus meningkat pada usia dewasa akhir, lansia awal sampai dengan usia ≤ 65 tahun. Jumlah asupan kabohidrat mempengaruhi beban glikemik secara langsung. Beban glikemik merupakan parameter untuk mengetahui kecepatan glukosa pada suatu makanan untuk masuk ke peredaran darah, jika beban glikemik yang dikonsumsi meningkat maka secara perlahan terjadi peningkatan glukosa darah dan insulin. Tujuan : mengetahui efek beban glikemik dengan kadar glukosa darah lansia. Metode: Penelitian ini termasuk studi crossectional dengan sampel 30 responden yang sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi. Pengambilan sampel dengan teknik consecutive sampling. Beban glikemik dihitung menggunakan food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) semi kuantitatif dengan menghitung rata-rata asupan karbohidrat selama 1 bulan terakhir. Beban glikemik didapat dari hasil kali antara karbohidrat dalam bahan makanan dengan indeks glikemik makanan tersebut. Kadar glukosa darah puasa diukur dengan menggunakan alat spektrofotometer dengan satuan mg/dL. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah pearson product moment. Hasil: Sebanyak 20 (66,7%) responden memiliki beban glikemik kategori tinggi dan 19 ( 63,3%) responden memiliki kadar glukosa darah puasa kategori tinggi. Hasil uji analisis antara beban glikemik dengan kadar glukosa darah puasa menunjukkan nilai p = 0,001. Kesimpulan: Beban glikemik berhubungan dengan kadar glukosa darah pada lansia di Paguyuban Diabetes Melitus Surakarta.

Background: The symptoms and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus increased in late adulthood, early elderly up to ≤ 65 years old. The amount of carbohydrate intake directly affect glycemic load. Glycemic load is a parameter to determine the speed of glucose in a food to enter the blood circulation, if the glycemic load consumed increases, there will be an increase in blood glucose and insulin. Objective: to determine the association of glycemic load to blood glucose level in elderly. Method:This is a cross sectional study with a total of 30 respondens were chosen based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling technique. Glycemic load was obtained from the average of 1 month carbohydrate intake by using 1 month semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Glycemic load is obtained by multiplying carbohydrates and the glycemic index in food. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a spectrophotometer by unit mg/dL. All data were analyzed using pearson product moment. Results: 20 (66.7%) respondents had a high glycemic load and 19 (63.3%) respondents had a high fasting blood glucose level. The statistical analysis shows that there is an association between glycemic load and fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.001). Conclusion: Glycemic load is related to blood glucose levels in Paguyuban Diabetes Melitus Surakarta.

Keywords

Beban Glikemik; Diabetes Melitus; Kadar Glukosa Darah; Karbohidrat

Full Text:

PDF

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 11 times
PDF - 13 times

References

Bhupatiraju, SN., Tobias, DK., Malik, VS., Pan, A., Hruby,A., Manson, JE., Willet, WC., Hu, FB. 2014. Glycemix Index, Glycemic Load, And Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Results from 3 Large US Cohort and an Updae Meta-Analysis. Am J. Clin Nutr 2014 : 100 :218-32.

Burani J. Gusher and tricklers: practical use of glycemic index. www.Glycemic.com Presented to the American Diabetes Association 21st Annual Southern Regional Conference: Marco Island, Florida (May 26, 2006)

Brand, Miller Thomas, M., Swan, V., Ahmad, ZI., Petocz, P., Colagiuri, S. 2003. Physiological Validation of the Concept of Glycemic Load in Lean Young Adults. J Nutr. 133 ; 2695-2696

Departemen Kesehatan RI. 2006. Survei Kesehatan Rumah Tangga (SKRT) 2004, Volume 3, Sudut Pandang Masyarakat mengenai Status, Cakupan, Ketanggapan, dan Sistem Pelayanan Kesehatan. Jakarta : Badan Litbangkes.

Endriyani, S., Soviana, E. 2019. Hubungan Beban Glikemik Buah dengan Kadar Glukosa Darah pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tipe II di Klinik Jasmine 2 Surakarta. Skripsi. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

Fitri, RI., Wirawanni,Y. 2011. Asupan Energi, Karbohidrat, Serat, Beban Glikemik, Latihan Jasmani Dan Kadar Gula Darah pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2. Jurnal. UNDIP. Semarang.

Hardinsyah. 2016. Ilmu Gizi : Teori & Aplikasi. Jakarta : EGC.

IDF . 2015. DIABETES. Seventh Ed. International Diabetes Federation.

IDF Diabetes Atlas. 2009. Fourth Ed. International Diabetes Federation.

Indriasari, R., Jafar, N., Mardhiyah, AI. 2014. Hubungan Pola Makan dengan Kadar Gula Darah Pasien Rawat Jalan DM Tipe 2 Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kota Makassar. Skripsi UNHAS.Makasar

Jenkins, DJ., Kendall, CW., Augustin, LS. 2002. Glycemic Index: Overview of Implications in Health and Disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76(suppl): 266S- 73S.

Liu S., Manson, JE., Stamfer, MJ., Holmes, MD., Hu, FB., Hankinson, SE., and Willet, WC. 2001. Dietary Glycemic Load Assessed by Food- Frequency Questitionaire in Relation to Plasma-High-Density-Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerols in Postmenopausal Women. Am J. Clin Nutr., Vol.73.

Mahan, LK., Escott-Stump, S., Raymond, JL. 2012. Food & the Nutrition Care Process, Elsevier. Available at: http://saudenocorpo.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Dietoterapia-de-krause.pdf.

Mc Keown., Nicola, M., James, BM., Simin, L., Edward, S., Peter, WF., Wilson., Paul, FJ. 2004.‘Carbohydrate Nutrition, Insulin Resistance, and the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort’, Diabetes Care, 27(2), pp. 538–546. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.2.538.

Monthedoroa., Angela, C., Negreiros, SI., Del, ÁC., Ysla, MM., Mayta, TP. 2017. Association between dietary glycemic load and metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. Arch Argent Pediatr 2017;115(4):323-330 / 323

Murray, RK., Granner, DK., Rodwell, VW. 2014. Biokimia harper 29 ed. Jakarta: Buku Kedokteran EGC.

PERKENI (2015) Konsensus Pengolahan dan Pencegahan Diabetes Melitus di Indonesia 2015. jakarta: PB Perkeni.

Rimbawan dan Siagian A. 2004. Indeks Glikemik Pangan. Jakarta : Penebar Swadaya

Simin, S., Schulz, MB., Rimm, EB., Manson, JE., Willett, WC., Hu, FB. 2004. Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Dietary Fiber Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Younger and Middle-aged women .Am j clin nutr 2004;80:348 –56

Sheard, NF., Nathaniel, GC., Janette, C., Brand-Miller, Marion, JF., Xavier, PS., Elizabeth, MD., Karmeen, K., and Patti, G. 2004. ‘Dietary Carbohydrate (Amount and Type) in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes’, Diabetes Care, 27(9), pp. 2266–2271. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.9.2266.

Soviana, E., Maenasari, D. 2019. Asupan Serat, Beban Glikemik dan Kadar Glukosa Darah pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus tipe 2. Jurnal Kesehtan. 12 (1):19-29.

Trisnawati, S., Widarsa,T., Sulastika, K. 2013.Faktor Resiko Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 Pasien Rawat Jalan di Puskesmas Wilayah Kecamatan Denpasar Selatan. Denpasar : Public Health and Preventive Medicine Archive, Vol. 1, no. 1.

Venn, BJ., dan Green, TJ. 2007. Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships., European journal of clinical nutrition, 61 Suppl 1, pp. S122–S131. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602942.

Xavier, F., dan Sunyer, P. 2002. Glycemic Index and Disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76(suppl): 290S-8S.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.