The Historical Criticism and Causality in The Philosophy of History: Ibn Khaldun’s Perspective
Keywords:Thought, Philosophy of History, Ibn Khaldun, ‘Umrân, Causality
AbstractThis study will reveal how ibn Khaldun's philosophy of history, especially on his historical criticism and the concept of causality. This research is based on literature and qualitative research that uses a philosophical approach to explain the meaning of philosophy of history. This research presented Ibn Khaldun's criticism on historians' subjectivity in observing history. He believed that history progressed in the spiral pattern that moved repetitively, but the repetition continued towards progression. According to Ibn Khaldun, history is under the laws that control it, and the historical reality is a unity, not independent, and has a relationship with each other. To know the nature of civilization, all the needs to do is know the causes, principles, and elements contained in a civilization. There are four causes make the nature of civilization; ‘umrân as material cause, daulah as formal cause, ‘ashabiyah as efficient cause, and mashâlih ‘âmmah as final cause.
‘Aishy, Husein. Ibn Khaldun Mu’arrikhan. Beirut: Dar Kutub al-‘Ilmiah, 1991. Al-Khudairi, Zainab. Falsafah Tarikh ‘inda Ibn Khaldun. Cairo: Dar Tsaqofah li-Nasyr wa at-Tauzi’, 2007. Al-Qaradhawi, Yusuf. Distorsi Sejarah Islam. Translatted by Arif Munandar Riswanto. Jakarta: Pustaka Al-Kautsar, 2005. Amin, Khairul. “Badawah & Hadarah: Konsep Sosiologi Ibn Khaldun.” Jurnal Sosiologi Agama Vol. 12, no. 1 (June 2018). Baali, Fuad, and Ali Wardi. Ibn Khaldun Dan Pola Pemikiran Islam. Jakarta: Penerbit Pustaka Firdaus, 2003. Bennabi, Malik. The Question of Culture. Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust, The International Institute of Islamic Though, 2003. Caksu, Ali. Ibn Khaldun and Philosophy: Causality in History, Journal of Historical Philosophy, 2017. Flint, Robert. History of Philosophy of History. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1893. Frederick, William H., and Soeri Soeroto. Pemahaman Sejarah Indonesia Sebelum Dan Sesudah Revolusi. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1989. Hasyim, Hafidz. Watak Peradaban Dalam Epistemologi Ibnu Khaldun. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2012. Huda, Nurul. “Pemikiran Ibn Khaldun Tentang ‘Ashabiyah.” Jurnal Suhuf Vol. 20, no. 1 (Mei 2008). Ilham, Muh. “Konsep ‘Ashabiyah Dalam Pemikiran Politik Ibn Khaldun.” Jurnal Politik Profetik Vol. 4, no. 1 (2016). K. Hitti, Philip. Makers of Arab History. New York: Harper & Bow, 1971. Kaya, Emrah. “A Critical Approach to Causality and Rational Knowledge in Ibn Khaldūn.” Ulum: Journal of Religious Inquiries Vol. 3, no. 2 (December 2020): 244. Khaldun, Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad Ibn. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction To History, Abridge Edition. Translatted by Franz Rosenthal, ed. N. J. Dawood. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005. Kuntowijoyo. Identitas Politik Umat Islam. Indonesia: Mizan, 1997. Lacoste, Yves. Ibn Khaldun: The Birth of History and the Past of the Third World. New York: Verso Books, 1984. Ma’arif, Ahmad Syafi’i. Ibn Khaldun Dalam Pandangan Penulis Barat Dan Timur. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 1996. Mahdi, Muhsin. Ibn Khaldûn’s Philosophy of History. England: Taylor & Francais, 2015. Munir, Misnal. Filsafat Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press, 2016. Rabie’, Muhammad Mahmud. The Political Theory of Ibnu Khaldun. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1967. Rosowulan, Titis. Teori Peradaban: Kajian Atas Filsafat Sosial Malik Bennabi. In Proceedings of The International Conference on Muslim Society an Thought. Surabaya: UINSA Press, 2017. Shehab et,al, El-Mekdab. “The Psycho-Sociological Perspective on Civilization: Insights from Malik Bennabi Theory.” International Journal of Islamic Thought Vol. 19 (June 2021). Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. “Spenglerian.” Accessed January 20, 2022. https://www. Merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Spenglerian. Suharto, Toto. Historiografi Ibnu Khaldun Analisis Atas Tiga Karya Sejarah Pendidikan Islam. Jakarta: Penerbit Kencana, 2020. Wafi, Ali Abdulwahid. ‘Abd Rahman Ibn Khaldun: Hayatuh Wa Atsaruh Wa Mazahiru ‘Abqariyatih, n.d. Zubaidi, et.al, Sujiat. The Relation of Religion, Science and Civilization, Malik Bennabi’s Perspective, n.d.
The author whose published manuscript approved the following provisions:
- The right of publication of all material published in the journal / published in the Tsaqafah is held by the editorial board with the knowledge of the author (moral rights remain the author of the script).
- The formal legal provisions for access to digital articles of this electronic journal are subject to the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0), which means that Tsaqafah reserves the right to save, transmit media or format, Database), maintain, and publish articles without requesting permission from the Author as long as it keeps the Author's name as the owner of Copyright.
- Printed and electronic published manuscripts are open access for educational, research and library purposes. In addition to these objectives, the editorial board shall not be liable for violations of copyright law.
- It is a serious offense for anyone to publish any article of Tsaqafah without permission.