H.M. Rasjidi's View on The Modern Western Civilization

Mohammad Zakki Azani


This study aims to discuss the development of Western thought and civilization according to H. M. Rasjidi by revealing its characteristics. This research is qualitative, with descriptive and analytic methods. The results found that modern Western civilization cannot be separated from the thoughts and reflections of their philosophers about the nature of life and the universe as well as their experiences in viewing the history of religion in the West. The system of the theocracy of the church has triggered the emergence of secularism which moves freely from the domination of church doctrine. This understanding was formed from rationalism, the Protestant movement, and humanism. It was from those processes of thought that the West can develop. So today they reject the spiritual values of religion. In the end, religion is undermined and only becomes a private matter. Religion is separated from state affairs, science, morality and serves only as ceremonial matters, such as; a ritual of birth, marriage, and death. In addition, Rasjidi argues that the West rejects absolute truth even though it comes from God. This Western view of life has become one of Rasjidi's special concerns because it has a direct or indirect effect on the lives of Muslims, especially in Indonesia.


H.M. Rasjidi, Modern, Western Civilization, Secularization‎

Full Text:


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


Açikgenç, Alparslan (2008). “Aristotelian and Islamic Moral Philosophy: A Comparative Ethics.” al-Shajarah, Vol. 13, No. 2. 125-146.

Al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib (1993). Islam and Secularism. Kuala Lumpur, International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC).

Al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib (2001). Risalah Untuk Kaum Muslimin, Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC.

Allen, Diogenes (1985). Philosophy for Understanding Theology. Atlanta: John Knox Press.

Ayoub, Mahmoud M. “Roots of Muslim-Christian Conflict,” The Muslim World LXXIX, no. 1, Januari. (1989); 25-45.

Azani, Mohammad Zakki. “Rasjidi on Morality and Its Relevance to Contemporary Discourse,” Iseedu: Journal of Islamic Educational Thoughts and Practices, Vol 3, No 1 (2019): 27-40.

Azani, Mohammad Zakki dan Harris, Khalif Muammar A. “Islam dan Modernisme di Indonesia: Tinjauan atas Pemikiran Mohamad Rasjidi (1915-2001),” Tsaqafah 15, no 1. (2019): 147-164.

Azani, Mohammad Zakki. “Pemikiran Mohamad Rasjidi (1915-2001) Tentang Islam, Modenisme dan Kristianisasi di Indonesia,” (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Raja Zarith Sofiah Centre For Advanced Studies on Islam, Science and Civilisation, Univeristi Teknologi Malaysia, 2020).

Benavides, Gustavo (2004). “Modernity and Buddhism,” in Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2 vols. ed., Robert E. Buswell. Jr. New York: MacMillan.

Boisard, Marcel A (1980). Humanisme Dalam Islam, penterjemah. H. M. Rasjidi. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Clark RSCJ, Mary T. (1994), Augustine. London: Continuum.

Colwell E. C., (1952). What is the Best New Testament? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Davis, David Brion (1966, reprint., 1969). The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Dockstader, Frederick J (1978) “Modernism,” The Encylopedia Americana. Canada: Grolier Limited & Americana Corporation.

Eng, Erling. “Locke's Tabula Rasa and Freud's "Mystic Writing Pad",” Journal of the History of Ideas 41, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1980): 133-140.

Epp, Eldon Jay (2005). Perspective on New Testament Textual Criticism, Collected Essays, 1962-2004. Netherlands: Brill.

Flage, Daniel E. “Hume's Dualism,” Noûs, 16, No. 4 (November 1982), 527-541.

Flood, Gavin. “Western Perspectives on Dialogue in a World of Conflict and Violence” in Interreligious Relations Occasional Papers of The Studies in Interreligious Relations in Plural Societies Programme, ed. Abdullah Saeed and Paul Hedges, Issues 9, October 2019. https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep36277Accessed: 18-01-2022 23:41 UTC

Gilson, Etienne (1966). Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Gilson, Etienne (1968). God and Philosophy. Yale & London: New Haven & London-Yale Univeristy Press.

Green, Vivian (1996). A New History of Christianity. United Kingdom: Sutton Publishing.

H. M. Rasjidi, Sekularisme dalam Persoalan Lagi (Jakarta: Yayasan Bangkit, 1972),.

Hofmann, Murad Wilfried (1997). “Muslims as Co-Citizens in the West: Rights, Duties, Limits, Prospects,” Encounters: Journal of Inter-Cultural Perspectives 3, No. 2.

Hofmann, Murad Wilfried (1998). “The Protection of Religious Minorities in Islam,” Encounters 4. no.2.

Hordern, William E (1978). A Layman Guide to the Protestant Theology. New York: Macmillan Publishing. Co., Inc.

Hume, David. (1992). Writings on Religion, ed. Antony Flew. Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company.

Hume, David (1900). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Chicago: The Open Court Publishing.

Jabali, Fuad dan Jamari (ed.). (2002) IAIN Modernisasi Islam di Indonesia. Ciputat: Logos Wacana Ilmu.

Kingdom, Robert M. (2005). “Reformation,” in New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, 5 vols, ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz .USA: Thomson Gale.

Kurzman, Charles (2005). “Reform,” in New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, 5 vols, ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. USA: Thomson Gale.

Limor, Ora (2006). “Christians and Jews.” dalam The Cambridge History of Christianity in Western Europe c.1000-c. 1500, ed. Miri Rubin dan Walter Simons (New York: Cambridge University Press.

Locke, John. (1988). Essays On The Law of Nature, ed. W. Von Leyden. New York: Oxford University Press.

Machmudi, Yon, Supratman, Frial Ramadhan and Ozay, Mehmet. “Turkish Laicism in Indonesia’s Newspapers (1920-1940) and Its Influence on Indonesian Secularists and Muslim thoughts,” Journal of Indonesian Islam, vol, 15, No 01, June 2021: 1-20.

Makdisi, George (1981). The Rise of Colleges Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Mckeon, Richard. “Philosophy as an Agent of Civilization,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 41, no 4 (1981): 419-436.

Molesworth, Sir William (1994). The Collected Works of Thomas Hobbes, vol 1, kata pengantar, Dr G.A.J. Rogers. London: Routledge Thoemmes Press.

Natsir, M. (1973) Capita Selecta. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Pennington, K. (2003). “Innocent IV, Pope,” New Catholic Encyclopedia, edisi kedua, 16 vols. The United States of America: Gale, 2003. 7: 473-6.

Pirenne, Henri (1958). A History of Europe, vol 1, kata penghantar oleh Jan-Albert Goris. New York: Doubleday Anchor Book.

Powell, J. M. (2003). “Gregory IV, Pope,” New Catholic Encyclopedia, edisi kedua, 16 vols. The United States of America: Gale. 6: 496-8.

Rasjidi H. M (1970) “Prasaran Tentang Perbaikan IAIN pada Musjawarah Kerjda Direktorat Pendidikan Tinggi Agama Islam, 11 Ogosus 1970 di Tjiloto”, in Prof. Dr. H. Rasjidi Versus Drs. Zahri Hamid, ed. Zahri Hamid. Jogjakarta: Alumnus Fakultas Syari’ah IAIN Sunan Kalijaga.

Rasjidi, H. M (1965; reprint., 1970). Falsafah Agama. Djakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M (1966). Islam dan Socialisme. Djakarta: Jajasan Islam Studi Club Indonesia.

Rasjidi, H. M (1967). Kebebasan Beragama, Djakarta: Dewan Da’wah Islamiyah Indonesia.

Rasjidi, H. M. (1979). Kebebasan Beragama. Jakarta: Media Da’wah.

Rasjidi, H. M (1968). Islam dan Indonesia di Zaman Modern. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M (1968; reprint., 1980), Mengapa Aku Tetap Memeluk Agama Islam. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M (1971) Keutamaan Hukum Islam. Jakarta. Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M (1972). Agama dan Etik. Jakarta: Sinar Hudaya.

Rasjidi, H. M (1972). Koreksi terhadap Drs. Nurcholish Madjid Tentang Sekularisasi. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M (1974). Empat Kuliah Agama Islam pada Pendidikan Tinggi. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M (1974). Sidang Raya Dewan Gereja Sedunia di Jakarta 1975 Merupakan Tantangan Terhadap Dunia Islam. Jakarta: Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia.

Rasjidi, H. M (1976) Hukum Islam dan Pelaksanaannya Dalam Sejarah. Jakarta. Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M (1977). Koreksi Terhadap Dr. Harun Nasution Tentang ‘Islam Ditinjau dari Berbagai Aspeknya. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Rasjidi, H. M. (1980). Strategi Kebudayaan dan Pembaharuan Pendidikan Nasional. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.

Ross, George Macdonald. (2009). Starting With Hobbes. London: MPG Books Group.

Rubin, Miri dan Simons, Walter (ed) (2006). “Introduction,” in The Cambridge History, Christianity in Western Europe c.1000-c. 1500. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shahin, Emad Eldin, “Muhammd Rashid Rida’s Perspective on the West as Reflected in Al-Manar,” The Muslim World LXXIX (1989),, no. 2: 113-132.

Smith, Sir William dan Lockwood, Sir John (2002). Chambers Murray Latin-English Dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers.

Smith, Wilfred Cantwell (1957). Islam in Modern History. Princenton, New Jersey: Princenton University Press.

Tarnas, Richard (1993). The Passion of the Western Mind. New York: Ballantine Books. Dahmus, Joseph (1984). Dictionary of Medieval Civilization. New York: Macmillan.

The New Encyclopaedia Britanica, 15th. ed., (1998). s.v, “Modernism,” 99 vols. USA: Encyclopaedia Britanica. Inc. 8: 215.

Tayob, Abdulkader, “Dialectical Theology in the Search for Modern Islam” in Islamic Studies in the Twenty-First Century, Transformations and Continuities, Ed. Léon Buskens and Annemarie van Sandwijk. Amsterdam Amsterdam University Press, 2016.

Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Nor (2013). Islamization of Contemporary Knowledge and the Role of The University in the Context of De-Westernization and Decolonization. Johor: UTM Press.

Wright, S. Neilland and T (1989). The Interpretation of The New Testament 1861-1986. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.

Electronic Sources

https://www.mcgill.ca/indonesia-project/about/history. Accessed on 23 January 2022.

https://lakilakibaru.or.id/liberalisme-dan-konsolidasi-gerakan-legalisasi-perkawinan-homoseksual-di-indonesia/. Accessed on 20 January 2022.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-vatican-lgbt-unions-idUSKBN2B82MN. Accessed on 23 January 2022.