Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas on Human Origin

Fiqih Risallah, Tatiana Denisova

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to reflect on al-Attas’ conception of human creation. It argues that human creation model in Islamic perspective differs from evolutionary and positivist model. The issue centers upon a question as to when Adam was initially present on earth. Al-Attas asserts that human knowledge of his origin is limited in such a way that only through revelation it is truly revealed. Divine information is crucial without which knowledge of his origin would be a matter of purely speculative presumption. By employing a tawîd approach, al-Attas managed to establish the time frame of Adam first appearance with a view to clarifying that his arrival along with his wife was in approximately between 7000 and 8000 years ago, not in terms of hundreds of thousands of years ago. This estimative calculation can only be done when the definition of human being is clearly justified. Al-Ḥayawân al-Nâṭiq is more than a mere rational animal, conceived as having a connection with prior organism. Al-Attas defines it a living being that speaks signifying his given power to apprehend what knowledge communicates and to communicate what it apprehends. This paper found that human being is a special and a new creation, and Adam is the Father of mankind nothing to do with biological evolutionary theory. This creation is a recent event in the history of time. Hence, human was created with purpose justifying that his existence on earth is a grace and his life historically is purposeful.

Keywords: al-Attas, Human Being, Human Origin, Missing Link, Prophet Adam. 

 

 

Abstrak

Artikel ini bertujuan untuk merefleksikan konsepsi al-Attas tentang penciptaan manusia. Menyatakan bahwa model penciptaan manusia dari perspektif Islam bertentangan dengan model dari kelompok evolusionis dan positivis. Permasalahan utamanya berkaitan dengan pertanyaan kapan Adam hadir di bumi pertama kali. Al-Attas menegaskan bahwa pengetahuan manusia tentang asal-usulnya sangat terbatas sehingga hanya melalui perantaraan wahyu hal itu bisa terungkap. Informasi ilahi sangat krusial yang dengan tanpanya, pengetahuan manusia terhadap asal-usulnya akan menjadi anggapan yang bersifat spekulatif. Dengan menerapkan pendekatan tawḥîd, al-Attas berhasil menetapkan jangkaan waktu keberadaan Adam pertama kali di bumi yang bertujuan untuk mengklarifikasi bahwa kedatangannya bersama istrinya adalah berkisar antara 7000 sampai 8000 tahun yang lalu; bukan ratusan ribu tahun yang lalu. Kalkulasi ini hanya dapat dilakukan jika definisi tentang manusia telah diformulasikan dengan benar dan tepat. Al-Ḥayawân al-Nâṭiq tidak hanya sekedar bermaksud ‘hewan rasional’ yang dianggap memiliki keterkaitan dengan organisme sebelumnya. Al-Attas mendefinisikannya sebagai makhluk hidup yang bertutur-kata yang menunjukkan akan kekuatan yang dimilikinya untuk mampu memahami apa yang dikomunikasikan sebagai pengetahuan dan mampu mengkomunikasikan apa yang ditangkapnya. Artikel ini menemukan bahwa  asal-usul manusia adalah sebagai ciptaan khusus dan baru, dan Adam merupakan bapak umat manusia yang tidak ada hubungannya dengan teori evolusi biologis. Penciptaannya termasuk dalam kategori peristiwa baru dalam sejarah waktu. Karenanya, manusia diciptakan dengan tujuan yang bermaksud bahwa keberadaanmya di muka bumi adalah sebuah rahmat dan secara historis kehidupannya memiliki tujuan.

 

Kata Kunci: al-Attas, Manusia, Asal-Usul Manusia, Missing Link, Nabi Adam.

Keywords

al-Attas, Human Being, Human Origin, Missing Link, Prophet Adam

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