Kontroversi Dakwah Fethullah Gulen: Golden Generation dan Infiltrasi ke dalam Lembaga Negara

Akhmad Rizqon Khamami

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the source of Fethullah Gulen's controversy in his da’wah, that is golden generation and their infiltration into state institutions. Golden generation is the main goal of Gulen's mission. He creates golden generations through his educational activities. He founded schools, dormitories and isik evler. After undergoing training, golden generations are urged to pursue their further education in top universities. Afterwards, they are encouraged to pursue careers in any state institutions. Facts have it, Gulen succeeded in placing the golden generation in all state institutions, including the police, prosecutors, judiciary and military institutions. They reach some high posts in the state institution. This very way is Gulen’s method to ‘Islamize the persons of the state institutions’ rather than to ‘Islamize the institution’. Later on this very method and bringing the golden generation into the state institutions give birth to a controversy that culminated in the 2016 Turkish coup. This article concludes that the coup is originated from Gulen's concept of the golden generation and his encouragement for the golden generations to take into state institutions and carry out 'Islamization' from within the institution.

 

Keywords: Gulen Movement, Gulen’s da’wah, Gulen’s controversy, golden generation, infiltration.

 

Abstrak

Artikel ini mengupas sumber kontroversi dakwah Fethullah Gulen, yaitu keterkaitan antara golden generation dengan infiltrasi mereka ke dalam lembaga negara. Pembentukan golden generation merupakan tujuan utama dakwah Gulen. Ia mencetak golden generation melalui aktivitas pendidikan. Gulen mendirikan sekolah, asrama dan isik evler. Setelah menjalani penggemblengan, diharapkan golden generation akan menembus universitas papan atas. Mereka selanjutnya didorong untuk berkarir di lembaga negara. Terbukti, Gulen berhasil menempatkan golden generation pada semua lembaga negara, antara lain lembaga kepolisian, kejaksaan, kehakiman dan militer. Mereka menempati pos-pos penting di lembaga negara tersebut. Cara Gulen ini merupakan metode dakwah Gulen yang hendak ‘mengislamkan pemegang lembaga’, bukan ‘mengislamkan lembaga’. Kelak metode dakwah dengan cara menempatkan golden generation ke dalam lembaga negara ini melahirkan kontroversi yang berpuncak pada kudeta Turki 2016. Artikel ini menyimpulkan bahwa kudeta tersebut sesungguhnya bersumber dari konsep Gulen tentang golden generation dan aktivitas dakwah Gulen yang mendorong golden generation tersebut untuk berkiprah di lembaga-lembaga negara dan melakukan ‘Islamisasi’ dari dalam lembaga.

 

Kata kunci: gerakan Gulen, dakwah Gulen, kontroversi Gulen, generasi emas, infiltrasi.

Keywords

Gulen Movement; Gulen’s da’wah; Gulen’s controversy; golden generation; infiltration.

Full Text:

PDF

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 7 times
PDF - 0 times

References

Agai, Bekim. ‘The Gulen Movement’s Islamic Ethic of Education’, Critique, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2002).

Aktay, Yasin. ‘Diaspora and Stability: Constitutive elements in a body of knowledge’, dalam M.H. Yavuz and J.L. Esposito (eds), Turkish Islam and the Secular State: The Gulen Movement, (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 2003).

Aras, Bulent dan Caha, Omer. ‘Fethullah Gulen and his Liberal ‘Turkish Islam’ Movement’, MERIA, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 4, No. 4 (2000).

Aras, Bulent. ‘Turkish Islam’s Moderate Face’, Middle East Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 3 (1998).

Aziz, Sammy. ‘An Examination of the Dershane Phenomenon: Observations of Its Embodiment in the US and Turkey’, Tesis, (Connecticut: Hartford Seminary, 2015).

Bacık, Gokhan. ‘The Transformation of Muslim Self and the Development of a New Discourse on Europe: The Turkish Case’, International Review of Sociology, Vol. 13, No. 1 (2003).

Balcı, Bayram. ‘Fethullah Gulen’s Missionary Schools in Central Asia and their role in spreading Turkism and Islam’, Religion, State & Society, Vol. 31, No. 2, (2003).

Berger, Peter L. dan Luckmann, Thomas The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967).

Caliskan, Koray. ‘Explaining the End of Military Tutelary Regime and the July 15 Coup Attempt in Turkey’, Journal of Cultural Economy, Vol. 10, No. 1 (2016).

Ergene, Mehmet Enes. Tradition Witnessing the Modern Age. An analysis of the Gulen Movement, (Istanbul: The Light, 2008).

Gulen, Fethullah. ‘I Condemn All Threats to Turkey’s Democracy’, The New York Times, 25 Juli 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/26/opinion/fethullah-gulen-i-condemn-all-threats-to-turkeys-democracy.html.

Haliloglu, Nagihan. ‘Trauma, Historical Symbolism and the Return of the Repressed: the 15 July 2016 Coup Attempt in Turkey’, Asian Affairs, Vol. 48, No. 1 (2017).

Hendrick, Joshua D. Gulen: The Ambiguous Politics of Market Islam in Turkey and the World, (New York: New York University Press, 2013).

Huda, Sokhi. ‘Sufisme Dakwah Era Kontemporer: Kajian atas Pemikiran dan Praksis M. Fethullah Gulen’, Disertasi doktoral, (Surabaya: UIN Sunan Ampel, 2017).

Hunt, Robert A. dan Aslandoğan, Yuksel A. (eds), Muslim Citizens of the Globalized World. Contributions of the Gulen Movement, (Somerset, NJ; The Light & IID Press, 2006).

Icener, Zeyneb Cagliyan. ‘July 15: The Siege of Democracy in Turkey and the People’s Unprecedented Resistance’, Bilig, No. 79 (Autum 2016).

Khamami, Akhmad Rizqon. ‘Dakwah Ekonomi Gulen Movement: Integrasi Islam dan Neoliberalisme’, Episteme: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Tulungagung: IAIN Tulungagung, 2017).

Khamami, Akhmad Rizqon. ‘Erdogan Versus Gulen: Perebutan Pengaruh Antara Islam Politik Post-Islamis dengan Islam Kultural Apolitis’, al-Tahrir: Jurnal Pemikiran Islam, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Ponorogo: IAIN Ponorogo, 2016).

Khamami, Akhmad Rizqon. ‘Gulen Movement sebagai Counter-Hegemony: Membaca Kudeta Turki 2016 dengan Pendekatan Neo-Gramscian’, Jurnal Review Politik, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Surabaya: UIN Sunan Ampel, 2017).

Khamami, Akhmad Rizqon. ‘Integrasi Sains dan Agama: Perspektif Fethullah Gulen’, Disertasi doktoral, (Surabaya: UIN Sunan Ampel, 2016).

Khamami, Akhmad Rizqon. ‘Kontribusi Gerakan Nurcu dalam Kebangkitan Islam di Turki’, Islamica: Jurnal Studi Keislaman, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Surabaya: UIN Sunan Ampel, 2015).

Khamami, Akhmad Rizqon. ‘Paradigma Dakwah Islam Fethullah Gulen di Abad Kontemporer’, Islamica: Jurnal Studi Keislaman, Vol. 12, No. 2, (Surabaya: UIN Sunan Ampel, 2018).

Khamami, Akhmad Rizqon. ‘Tasawuf Tanpa Tarekat: Pengalaman Turki dan Indonesia’, Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam, Vol. 6, No. 1, (Surabaya: UIN Sunan Ampel, 2016).

Kucuksahin, Sukru. “The AKP’s Path to the Coup”, Al-Monitor (28 July 2016). http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/07/turkey-coup-attempt-calls-akp-self-criticism.html

Kuru, Ahmet T. ‘Fethullah Gulen’s search for a middle way between modernity and Muslim tradition’, dalam M.H. Yavuz and J.L. Esposito (eds), Turkish Islam and The Secular State. The Gulen Movement, (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2003).

Kuru, Zeynep A. dan Kuru, Ahmet T. ‘Apolitical Interpretation of Islam: Said Nursi’s Faith-Based Activism in Comparison with Political Islamism and Sufism,’ Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, Vol.19, No. 1 (Januari 2008).

Michel, Thomas. ‘Fethullah Gulen as educator’, dalam M.H. Yavuz and J.L. Esposito (eds), Turkish Islam and the Secular State. The Gulen movement, (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2003).

Mustafa Akyol, “What You Should Know about Turkey’s AKP-Gulen Conflict”, Al-Monitor (3 Januari 2014). http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/01/akp-gulen-conflict-guide.html

Ozdalga, Elisabeth. ‘Worldly asceticism in Islamic casting: Fethullah Gulen’s inspired piety and activism’, Critique, 17 (Fall, 2000).

Saritoprak, Zeki dan Griffith, Sidney. ‘Fethullah Gulen and the ‘People of the Book’: A Voice from Turkey for Interfaith Dialogue’, The Muslim World, Vol. 95, No. 3, (2005).

Sevindi, Nevval. Contemporary Islamic Conversations. M. Fethullah Gulen on Turkey, Islam, and the West, (Albany, NY: State University of New York, 2008).

Sunier, Thijl. ‘Cosmopolitan Theology: Fethullah Gulen and the making of a ‘Golden Generation’’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 37, No. 12 (2014).

Sykiainen, Leonid. ‘Democracy and the Dialogue between Western and Islamic Legal Cultures: The Gulen Case’, dalam R.A. Hunt and Y.A. Aslandoğan (eds), Muslim Citizens of the Globalized World. Contributions of the Gulen Movement, (Somerset, NJ; The Light & IID Press, 2006).

Unal, Ali and Alphonse, Williams. Advocate of Dialogue: Fethullah Gulen, (Fairfax: The Fountain, 2000).

Vahide, Sukran. ‘The Life and Times of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’, The Muslim World, Vol. 89, No. 3-4 (1999).

van Bruinessen, Martin. ‘The Governance of Islam in Two Secular Polities: Turkey’s Diyanet and Indonesia’s Ministry of Religious Affairs’, European Journal of Turkish Studies, 27 (2018).

Weller, Paul. ‘Fethullah Gulen, Religions, globalizations and dialogue’, dalam Robert A. Hunt dan Yuksel A. Aslandoğan (eds), Muslim Citizens of the Globalized World. Contributions of the Gulen Movement, (Somerset, NJ; The Light & IID Press, 2006).

Yavuz, Hakan dan Koc, Rasim. ‘The Turkish Coup Attempt: The Gulen Movement vs. the State’, Middle East Policy, Vol. 23, No. 4 (2016).

Yavuz, Hakan. ‘Being Modern in the Nurcu Way’, ISIM Newsletter (2000).

Yavuz, Hakan. ‘Is there a Turkish Islam? The Emergence of Convergence and Consensus’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 24, No. 2, (2004).

Yavuz, Hakan. ‘The Gulen movement. The Turkish Puritans’, dalam M.H. Yavuz and J.L. Esposito (eds). Turkish Islam and The Secular State. The Gulen Movement. (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2003).

Yavuz, Hakan. ‘The Three Stages of the Gulen Movement: From Pietistic Weeping Movement to Power-Obsessed Structure’, dalam Turkey’s July 15 th Coup: What Happened and Why, (Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 2018).

Yavuz, Hakan. ‘Towards as Islamic Liberalism? The Nurcu Movement and Fethullah Gulen in Turkey’, The Middle East Journal, Vol. 53, No. 4, (1999).

Yavuz, Hakan. Islamic Political Identity in Turkey, (London: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Yilmaz, Ihsan. Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gulen Movement, (Leeds: Leeds Metropolitan University Press, 2007).