Dialog Sunni-Syi‘ah antara Konfrontasi dan Rekonsiliasi

Syamsuddin Arif

Abstract

Abstract

Sunni-Shiite relations have been a perennial problem for Muslims for hundreds of years. Each has its own characteristics, style, character, worldview and belief system. Harmony and tension continue alternately to color the relationship between the two. In the present-day Middle East, Sunni-Shia tensions contribute to multiple flash points that are viewed as growing threats to international peace and security. Many ask, therefore: Is it possible for Sunnis and Shiites to be reconciled or united? Is it possible that the centuries-old conflict is revoked and eliminated? This article tries to answer these crucial questions from theological and historical perspectives, revealing facts that are often overlooked and tracing primary and secondary authoritative sources. It was concluded that the Shiites emerged from within the Muslim community and had freely but persistently used Islamic concepts, terms, and symbols such as imam, Ahlul Bayt, ‘Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram), mut‘ah (temporary marriage), sayyid (master), ayat (sign) for ideological purposes most of which contradict the faith of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama‘ah.

Keywords: Shi'ah, Shiism, Sunni-Shia Conflict, Intra-religious Polemic, Sectarianism, Reconciliation

Abstrak

Hubungan Sunni-Syi‘ah menjadi masalah perenial umat Islam sejak beratus tahun lamanya. Masing-masing mempunyai ciri, corak, karakter, cara pandang dan sistem kepercayaan tersendiri. Kerukunan dan ketegangan silih-berganti mewarnai relasi antara keduanya. Banyak yang bertanya, mungkinkah Sunni dan Syi‘ah dipertemukan atau dipersatukan? Dan mungkinkah konflik yang telah mengakar ratusan tahun lamanya itu bisa dicabut dan dilenyapkan? Artikel ini coba menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan krusial ini dari perspektif teologis maupun historis, dengan menyingkap fakta-fakta yang sering diabaikan dan menelusuri sumber-sumber otoritatif primer serta sekunder. Disimpulkan bahwa Syi‘ah muncul dari dalam umat Islam dan memakai konsep-konsep, istilah-istilah, serta simbol-simbol yang ada di dalam Islam seperti ‘imam’, ‘Ahlul Bayt’, ‘Asyura’, ‘mut‘ah’, ‘sayyid’, ‘ayat’ untuk kepentingan ideologis yang bertolak-belakang dengan akidah Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama‘ah. 

Kata Kunci: Syiah, Konflik Sunni-Syiah, Polemik Antargolongan, Sektarianisme,

Rekonsiliasi.

Keywords

Syiah; Sunni-Shi'i relation; Shi'ism; Sectarianism; Muslim schism

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 148 times
PDF (Indonesian) - 0 times

References

‘Abdul Ḥusayn al-Mūsawī, al-Murāja‘āt (t.t.: Dār al-Mu’arrikh al-‘Arabī, 1429/2008).

‘Alī al-Yazdī al-Ḥā’irī, Ilzām an-Nāṣib fī Itsbāt al-Ḥujjah al-Ghā’ib (Najaf: Dār an-Nu‘mān, 1390/1971)

“Lima Pesan Syeikh Al-Azhar dari MUI hingga Rekonsiliasi Sunni-Syiah” dalam Republika Online, Selasa 23 Februari 2016.

“SBY Buka Konferensi Rekonsiliasi Sunni - Syiah di Irak” dalam Detik News, Selasa 03 April 2007.

Alexandra Dunietz, The Cosmic Perils of Qāḍī Ḥusayn Maybudī in Fifteenth-Century Iran (Leiden: Brill, 2016)

Anja Pistor-Hatam, “ʿĀšurā in Istanbul: Religiöse Feierlichkeiten als Ausdruck persisch-schiitischen Selbstverständnisses am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts,” dalam jurnal Die Welt des Islams, vol. 38 (1998), hlm. 95-119

Arif Rafiq, Sunni Deobandi-Shi‘i Sectarian Violence in Pakistan Explaining the Resurgence Since 2007 (The Middle East Institute, 2014)

Armando Salvatore, The Wiley Blackwell History of Islam (Oxford, 2018).

Augustus Richard Norton, Hezbollah: A Short History, Princeton, 2007, hlm. 27- 46

Ayatollah ‘Ali as-Sīstānī, Minhāj as-Ṣāliḥīn (t.t.: Dār al-Mu’arrikh al-‘Arabī, 1429/2008)

Ayatollah al-Khū’ī, at-Tanqīḥ fī Syarḥ al-‘Urwat al-Wutsqā, ed. Mīrzā ‘Alī al-Gharawī (t.t.: Mu’assasat al-Khū’ī al-Islāmiyyah, 1430/2009)

Ayatollah al-Khumaynī, Taḥrīr al-Wasīlah (t.t.: Safārah al-Jumhūriyyah al-Īrāniyyah, 1418/1998)

Claude Cahen, “Le problème du Shi'isme dans l’Asie Mineure Turque préottomane,” dalam Le Shi'isme Imamite: Colloque de Strasbourg (6-9 mai 1968), ed. R. Brunschvig dan T. Fahd (Paris, 1970)

Colin P. Turner, “The Rise of Twelver Shi‘ite Externalism in Safavid Iran and Its Consolidation under ‘Allāma Muḥammad Bāqir Majlisī (1037/1627-1110/1699)” (PhD diss., Durham University, 1989)

Denis Hermann dan Yunersy Legorburo Ibarra, “La instauración del shiismo como religión de Estado en Irán bajo los safávidas: del shiismo qizilbāsh al shiismo imamita,” dalam Estudios de Asia y Africa 41 (2006), hlm. 442, 446–447

Elke Eberhard, Osmanische Polemik gegen die Safawiden im 16. Jahrhundert nach arabischen Handschriften (Freiburg im Breisgau: Klaus Schwarz, 1970).

Erika Glassen, “Muharram-Ceremonies (ʿAzâdârî ) in Istanbul at the End of the XIXth and the Beginning of the XXth Century,” dalam Les iraniens d'Istanbul, ed. T. Zarcone and F. Zarinebaf-Shahr (Louvain: Peeters, 1993), hlm. 113-129.

Ernest Tucker, Nadir Shah's Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006)

Etan Kohlberg, “From Imāmiyya to Ithnā-‘ashariyya”, dalam Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3 (1976)

Etan Kohlberg, “Taqiyya in Shī‘ī Theology and Religion,” dalam Secrecy and Concealment: Studies in the History of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Religions, ed. H. G. Kippenberg and G. G. Stroumsa (Leiden: Brill, 1995)

Fahaad J.M.M. Alenezi, Usuli Shi'ism and state approaches to Islamic unity: the ecumenical movement in post-Safavid Iran, PhD diss. University of Durham, 2009.

Farhad Daftary, Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies (London, 2005)

Francine Costet-Tardieu, Un réformiste à l'université al-Azhar: Œuvre et pensée de Mustafâ al-Marâghi (1881-1945) (Kairo: Karthala Editions, 2005)

Heribert Busse, “Iran under the Buyids,” dalam The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. IV, ed. R.N. Frye (Cambridge, 1975), hlm. 250-304.

Heribert Busse, “The Revival of Persian Kingship under the Buyids,” dalam Islamic Civilization 950-1150, ed. D. S. Richards (London, 1973), hlm. 47-69

Heribert Busse, Chalif und Grosskönig: Die Buyiden im Iraq (Beirut, 1969)

Ibn Taymiyyah, Faḍlu Ahl al-Bayt wa Ḥuqūquhum, ed. Abū Turāb az-Ẓāhirī (Jeddah: Dār al-Qiblah, 1405/1984)

Israel Elad-Altman, “The Sunni-Shi’a Conversion Controversy” dalam jurnal Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, vol. 5 (2007).

Israr Ahmad, The Tragedy of Karbala, terj. Muhammad Tufail (Lahore: Markazi Anjuman Khuddām-ul-Qur’ān, 2003)

Jacob M. Landau, The Politics of Pan-Islam: Ideology and Organization, Oxford, 1990

Jalaluddin Rakhmat, Misteri Wasiat Nabi (Bandung: Penerbit Misykat, 2015).

Jean Calmard, s.v. “Tabarru’,” dalam Encylopedia of Islam, 2nd ed. (Leiden: Brill Online, 2013)

Josef van Ess, Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra: A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam, terj. John O’Kane (Leiden: Brill, 2017)

M. Kāẓim al-Yazdī, al-‘Urwat al-Wutsqā (Qom: Sitārah, 1425 H)

Marcel Behrens, “Ein Garten des Paradieses”: Die

Prophetenmoschee von Medina (Würzburg: Ergon, 2007), hlm. 185-186.

Marshall G. S. Hodgson, “How Did the Early Shi‘a Become Sectarian,” dalam Journal of the American Oriental Society (JAOS) vol. 75, no. 1 (1955), hlm. 1-13.

Marshall G.S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977)

Martin Kramer, Shi’ism, Resistance and Revolution (London: Mansell [for Tel Aviv University], 1987)

Max Scherberger, “The Confrontation between Sunni and Shi’i Empires,” dalam The Sunna and Shi‘a in History: Division and Ecumenism in the Muslim Middle East, ed. Ofra Bengio and Meir Litvak (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)

Max Scherberger, “The Confrontation between Sunni and Shi’i Empires,” dalam The Sunna and Shi‘a in History: Division and Ecumenism in the Muslim Middle East, ed. Ofra Bengio and Meir Litvak (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)

Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shi‘i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi’ism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985)

Muḥammad Bāqir al-Majlisī (w. 1111/1699), Biḥār al-Anwār al-Jāmi‘ah li-Durar Akhbār al-A’immah al-Aṭhār(Beirut: Dār Iḥyā’ at-Turāts al-‘Arabī = Mu’assasat al-Wafā’, 1403/1983)

Muhammad Qasim Zaman, “Sectarianism in Pakistan: The Radicalization of Shi‘i and Sunni Identities,” dalam Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32 (1998), hlm. 689-716.

Muḥammad Tāhir ibn Muḥammad Ḥusayn as-Syīrāzī an-Najafī al-Qummī (w. 1098/1687), Kitāb al-Arba‘īn fī Imāmat al-A’immah al-Ṭāhirīn, ed. Mahdī al-Rajā’ī (Qumm: Maṭba‘at al-Amīr, 1418)

Musthafa Rafi‘I, Islam Kita: Titik Temu Sunni-Syiah (Tangerang: Fitrah dan the Middle East Institute, 2013).

Ofra Bengio dan Meir Litvak, The Sunna and Shi'a in History: Division and Ecumenism in the Muslim Middle East (New York: Springer, 2014)

Quraish Shihab, Sunnah Syiah Bergandengan Tangan Mungkinkah? Cetakan II (Jakarta: Lentera Hati, 2007)

Rainer Brunner, “Education, Politics, and the Struggle for Intellectual Leadership: Al-Azhar between 1927 and 1945,” dalam Guardians of Faith in Modern Times: ʿUlamaʾ in the Middle East, ed. Meir Hatina (Leiden: Brill, 2009), hlm. 109-140

Rainer Brunner, Islamic Ecumenism in the 20th Century: The Azhar and Shiism between Rapprochement and Restraint (Leiden: Brill, 2004).

Rainer Brunner, The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History (Leiden: Brill, 2001)

Reza Pourjavady, Philosophy in Early Safavid Iran: Najm al-Dīn Maḥmūd al-Nayrīzī and His Writings (Leiden: Brill, 2011)

Sabrina Mervin, “On Sunnite-Shiite Doctrinal and Contemporary Geopolitical Tensions” dalam The Dynamics of Sunni-Shia Relationships: Doctrine, Transnationalism, Intellectuals and the Media, ed. Brigitte Maréchal and Sami Zenmi (London: Hurst & Co., 2012)

Said Amir Arjomand, “Two Decrees of Shah Tahmasb Concerning Statecraft and the Authority of Shaykh ‘Alī al-Karakī,” dalam Authority and Political Culture in Shi’ism, ed. S. A. Arjomand (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988).

Said Amir Arjomand, The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam: Religion, Political Order, and Societal Change in Shi‘ite Iran from the Beginning to 1890 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984)

Selim Deringil, “The Struggle against Shiism in Hamidian Iraq: A Study in Ottoman Counter-Propaganda,” dalam jurnal Die Welt des Islams, vol. 30 (1990), hlm. 45-62.

Shmuel Bar, “Sunnis and Shiites: Between Rapprochement and Conflict,” dalam Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, vol. 2 (2005), hlm. 87-96

Sigrid Faath, Rivalitäten und Konflikt zwischen Sunniten und Schiiten in Nahost (Berlin: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik, 2010)

Stanfield-Johnson, Rosemary, “The Tabarra’iyan and the Early Safavids,” dalam Iranian Studies 37 (2004), hlm. 47

Syarafuddin al-Musawi, Dialog Sunnah-Syiah (Bandung: Mizan, 1983) = Al-Murajaʿāt: A Shiʿi-Sunni Dialogue, terj. Yāsin T. al-Jibouri (Beirut, 1994).

Syed Akbar Hyder, Reliving Karbala: Martyrdom in South Asian Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Syed Husain Mohammad Jafri, The Origins and Early Development of Shi‘a Islam (London: Oxford University Press, 2002)

Syed Rizwan Zamir, “Study of Shi‘ite Islam” dalam The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies, ed. Clinton Bennet (London: Bloomsbury, 2015).

Tamir Moustafa, “Conflict and Cooperation Between the State and Religious Institutions in Contemporary Egypt”, dalam International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 32, no.1 (2000), hlm. 3-22.

Tilmann Trausch, Abbildung und Anpassung: Das Türkenbild in safawidischen Chroniken des 16. Jahrhunderts (Berlin: Klaus Schwarz, 2008)

Tim Penulis, Mungkinkah Sunnah-Syiah dalam Ukhuwah? Jawaban atas Buku Dr. Quraish Shihab (Sunnah-Syiah Bergandengan Tangan Mungkinkah) (Pasuruan: Pustaka Sidogiri, 2007).

Valery A. Germanov, “Shiite-Sunnite Conflict of 1910 in the Bukhara Khanate,” dalam jurnal Oriente Moderno, vol. 87 (2007), hlm. 117-140.

Werner Ende, Arabische Nation und islamische Geschichte: Die Umayyaden im Urteil arabischer Autoren des 20. Jahrhunderts (Beirut: Deutsches Orient-Institut, 1977).

Yitzhak Nakash, “The Conversion of Iraq’s Tribes to Shiism,” dalam International Journal of Middles Eastern Studies vol. 26 (1994), hlm. 443-463.

Yitzhak Nakash, Reaching for Power: The Shi’a in the Modern Arab World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006).

Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī, Fatāwā Mu‘āṣirah (‘Fatwa-fatwa Kontemporer’), 4 jilid (Kuwait: Dār al-Qalam, 1424/2003)

Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī, Mabādiʾ fi’l-Ḥiwār wa’t-Taqrīb bayn al-Madzāhib al-Islāmiyyah (Kairo, 2005).

Zulkifli, The Struggle of the Shi‘is in Indonesia (Canberra: ANU E-Press, 2013).