Implementasi Syariat Islam: Telaah atas Praktik Ijtihad Umar bin Khattab

Muhammad Ridwan

Abstract

The reason of writing this article is the problem and mistake come from the contemporary Muslim thinkers who made mas}lah}at as the only benchmark in Islamic law, they even assumed that mas}lah}at is more important than the sharia itself. From this they concluded that deconstructing sharia based on mas}lah}at is permissible. They built their argument on the basis of the ijtihâd done by ‘Umar bin Khattab. At that time, ‘Umar broke the law of hand cuts for theft, stoped giving zakat for the converts, and did not give the spoils land to the soldiers. In fact, according to contemporary Muslim thinkers, these three things have been determined in the Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet SAW. It means ‘Umar bin Khattab’s ijtihâd is a breakthrough in liberal thinking. ‘Umar dared to contrary what was established in the Qur’an and the hadith of the Prophet. Then, ‘Umar is regarded as a fgure who has applied hermeneutic methods in Islamic law. This thought actually is a mistake. The contemporary thinkers only thought partially and did not discuss ‘Umar’s ijtihâd thoroughly and deeply. By referring to earlier Muslim scholars, this article try to prove that ‘Umar’ ijtihâd is an attempt to implement the Islamic Shari’a, despite elimiting or dismissing Islamic Shari’a itself as the above thinkers claim.

Keywords

Ijtihâd; ‘Umar bin Khattab; Islamic Sharia; Mas}lah}at; Contemporary Muslim Thinker

Full Text:

PDF

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 416 times
PDF - 351 times

References

Abdalla, Ulil Abshar. “Menyegarkan Kembali Pemikiran Islam”, Kompas, 18/11/2002.

Abu Yusuf. 1382 H. Al-Kharrâj. Cairo: al-Maṭba’ah al-Salafyyah, Cet.3.

_________. T.Th. al-Radd ‘alâ Siyar al-‘Auzâ’i. Beirut: Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Abu Zaid, Nasr Hamid. T.Th. Mafûm al-Naṣṣ: Dirâsah fî ‘Ulûm al-Qurân. Mesir: Haiah al-Miṣriyah al-‘Âmmah.

Al-‘Aini, Badruddin. T.Th. al-Binâyah Syarh al-Hidâyah, Jil. 5. Beirut: Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Al-Albani. Muhammad Nasiruddin. T.Th. Ṣahîh wa Ḍa’îf al-Jâmi’ al Ṣaghîr. Beirut: al-Maktabah al-Islâmiy.

Al-Asqalani, Ibnu Hajar. 1412 H. al-Isâbah fî Tamyîz al-Sahâbah, Jil. 4. Beirut: Dâr al-Jail.

Alma’arif. 2016. “Kesadaran Hermeneutik dalam Membaca Teks: Model Ijtihad ‘Umar ibn al-Khatab”, al-A’raf: Jurnal PemikiranIslam dan Filsafat, Vol. XIII, No.2, Juli-Desember 2016. Surakarta: IAIN Surakarta.

Armayanto, Harda., Maria Ulfa. 1434/2013. “Dekonstruksi Syari’ah dalam Pernikahan Muslimah dengan non-Muslim”, Jurnal Ijtihad, Volume 7 Nomor 2, Sya’ban. Ponorogo: Fakultas Syariah, Institut Studi Islam Darussalam Gontor.

Assyaukanie, Luthf. (Ed.). 2002. Wajah Islam Liberal di Indonesia. Jakarta: Jaringan Islam Liberal.

_________. “Gebrakan Amina Wadud”, htp://Islamlib.com/keluarga/perempuan/gebrakan-amina-wadud/. Diakses pada 23 Juli 2017, Pukul: 08.11 WIB

Al-Babarti, Muhammad. T.Th. al-‘Inâyah Syarhal-Bidâyah, Jil. 2. Beirut: Dâr al-Fikr. Al-Baghdadi, al-Khatib. 1403 H. al-Jâmi’ li Akhlâq al-Râwî, Jil. 2. Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ma’ârif.

Al-Baihaqi, Abu Bakar Ahmad bin Husain bin ‘Ali. 1410 H. Sunan al Ṣughra, Jil. 3. Karachi: Jâmi’ah al-Dirâsah al-Islâmiyyah, Cet.1.

Al-Baladzuri. 1988. Futûh al-Buldân. Beirut: Maktabah al-Hilâl.

Al-Balkhi, Nidzamuddin. 1411 H. al-Fatâwâ al-Hindiyah, Jil. 2. Beirut: Dâr al-Fikr.

Baltaji, Muhammad. 1427 H. Manhaj ‘Umar bin al-Khaṭṭâb fî al-Tasyrî’. Cairo: Dâr al-Salâm, Cet. 3.

Al-Fasawi, Abu Yusuf Ya’qub. T.Th. al-Ma’rifah wa al-Târîkh, Jil. 3. Beirut: Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Fauri, Ilauddin ‘Ali bin Hisamuddin al-Burhan. 1401 H. Kanz al-’Ummâl fī Sunan al-Aqwâl wa Af’âl, JIl. 5. Beirut: Muassasah al-Risâlah, Cet.5.

Al-Haitsami. 1412 H. Mujma’ al-Zawâid, Jil. 4. Beirut: Dâr al-Fikr. Ibnu Anas, Malik. 1406 H. al-Muwaṭṭa’, Jil. 3. Beirut: Iḥya al-Ṭurâts al-‘Arabi.

Ibnu Adam, Yahya. 1974. al-Kharrâj. Lahore: al-Maktabah al-‘Ilmiyyah, Cet.1.

Ibnu Hisyam, ‘Abd al-Malik. 1411 H. Sîrah Ibn Hisyâm, Jil. 4. Beirut: Dâr al-Jail, Cet. 1.

Ibnu Humam. T.Th. Fatḥ al-Qadīr, Jil. 5. Beirut: Dâr al-Fikr.

Ibnu Juzai. T.Th. al-Qawânîn al-Fiqhiyyah. Beirut: Dâr al-Fikr.

Ibnu Katsir. 1420 H. Tafsîr al-Qurân al-Azîm, Juz 8. Riyadh: Dâr al-T}ayyibah, Cet.2.

Ibnu Manzur. 1402 H. Mukhtaṣar Târîkh al-Dimasyq, Jil. 5. Damaskus: Dâr al-fkr, Cet. 1.

Ibnu Qudamah. 1402 H. al-Mughnî, Jil. 7. Beirut: Dâr al-Fikr, Cet.1.

Ibnu Qutaibah. 1992. Al-Ma’ârif. Kairo: al-Haiah al-Miṣriyyah al-’Âmmah, Cet.2.

Ibnu Rusyd. 1395 H. Bidâyah al-Mujtahid, Jil.1. Mesir: Muṣṭafâ al-Babi al-Halabî, Cet.4.

Ibnu Taimiyah. 1425 H. Majmû’ al-Fatâwâ, Jil. 20. Madinah: Mujamma’al-Malik al-Fahd.

Al-Jassas, Abu Bakar. 1405 H. Aḥkâm al-Qurân, Jil. 5. Beirut: Dâr Iḥyâ al-Ṭurâts al-‘Arabi.

Al-Jauziyah, Ibnu Qayyim. 1388 H. I’lâm al-Muwaqqi’în, Jil. 3. Cairo: Maktabah al-Kulliyat al-Azhariyah.

Al-Kasani, Ilauddin Abu Bakar bin Mas’ud. 1406 H. Badâi’ al-Ṣanâi’i fî Tartîb al-Syarâi’, Jil. 15. Beirut: Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah, Cet.2.

Madjid, Nurcholis. 1992. Islam Doktrin dan Peradaban. Jakarta: Paramadina, Cet. 1.

Mas’adi, Ghufron A. 1997. Pemikiran Fazlur Rahman tentang Metodologi Pembaharuan Hukum Islam. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafndo Persada, Cet. 1.

Mawardi, Ahmad Imam. 2010. Fiqih Minoritas. Yogyakarta: LKIS, Cet.1.

Al-Mardawi, Ali bin Sulaiman. T.Th. Al-Inṣâf fî Ma’rifat al-Râjih min al-Khilâf, Jil. 4. Beirut: Dâr Iḥyâ al-Turâts al-’Arabi.

Al-Mawardi. T.Th. al-Aḥkâm al-Sulṭâniyyah. Cairo: Dâr al-H}adîts.

Al-Mubarakfuri. T.Th. Tuḥfah al-Aḥwadh, Jil. 5. Beirut: Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Al-Munawi, Abdur Rauf. 1356 H. Faiḍ al-Qadîr, Jil. 6. Mesir: al Maktabah al-Tijâriyyah al-Kubrâ, Cet.1.

Mutaqin, Zezen Z. “Menyegarkan Kembali Pintu Ijtihad”, htp://islamlib.com/kajian/fkih/menyegarkan-kembali-pintu-ijtihad/, diakses pada 06 Juli 2017, pukul: 09.15 WIB.