ﺑﻮﺭﻫﻮﺱ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﻚ ﺳﻜﻴﻨﺮ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ

Haris Budi Cahyono

Abstract


ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺎ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮﻩ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻛﻠﻪ ﻭﳘﻮﻣﻪ. ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﳝﺘﺎﺯ ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ، ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ. ﻭﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﰱ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ، ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻜﲑﻩ، ﺃﻭ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻩ. ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻨﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻳﺴﻬﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ. ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻜﻴﻨﺮ ﻛﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺜﲑ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ. ﻭﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21111/lisanudhad.v1i1.442

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