ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﰱ ﻣﻌﺎﱏ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ

Arif Adi Setiawan

Abstract


ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﻬﻤ ﺮ ﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺿﻬﻢ. ّﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﲎ ﰱ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺃﺎ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻳﻌﺒّﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮ ﻭ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ. ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰱ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ. ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ، ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ. ﻭﲤﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻋﻬﺎ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺝ ﺗﻮﺯﻋﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﻻ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ. ﻭﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﺙ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﳐﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﰱ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺧﺮﺝ( ﻭ )ﺩﺧﻞ(. ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻔﺔ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺮﻑ ﺁﺧﺮ. ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺣﺮﻓﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻬﻤﺎ ﰱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ. ﻭ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ. ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﳓﻮ ﺑﲔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﻠﺔ( ﻭ )ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ(.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21111/lisanudhad.v1i1.436

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