Evaluation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Control Range System using Lora-Based Communication System using Path Loss
Keywords:Control System, Lo-Ra, Long Range System, QCZEK, Radio Frequency, Transmission system, UAV
AbstractAbstractThis research aims to evaluate the communication system between the ground control system and the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) using the Lora communication system based on its Path Loss data. Lora itself is a 433 MHz-based communication system used for very long-distance communication. As we know, today UAV market used a 2.4 GHz-based communication system because it is cheaper than using 433MHz. But, although it is cheaper than 433MHz, a lot of devices used the same frequency like WiFi systems and another wireless electrical components. That condition creates a lot of signal interference so communication between the ground control system and the UAV becomes shorter. 433MHz is not a new technology for a communication system, this frequency is usually used for radio news and long-range data logging. It is rarely used 433 MHz frequency for transmitting a big package of data because 433 MHz frequency has a slow data transfer rate but has a long data transfer distance. From testing, we got an improvement of control range more than twice with Lo-Ra 433 MHz compared to the 2.4 GHz module.Keywords: Control System, Lo-Ra, Long Range System, Radio Frequency, Transmission system, UAV Abstrak[Evaluasi Sistem Jarak Kendali Kendaraan Udara Tanpa Awak (UAV) Menggunakan Sistem Komunikasi Berbasis Lora Menggunakan Path Loss] Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi sistem komunikasi antara ground control system dengan Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) menggunakan sistem komunikasi Lora berdasarkan data Path Loss-nya. Lora sendiri merupakan sistem komunikasi berbasis 433 MHz yang digunakan untuk komunikasi jarak jauh. Seperti yang kita ketahui, pasar UAV saat ini menggunakan sistem komunikasi berbasis 2,4 GHz karena lebih murah daripada menggunakan 433MHz. Tapi, meski lebih murah dari 433MHz, banyak perangkat yang menggunakan frekuensi yang sama seperti sistem WiFi dan komponen listrik nirkabel lainnya. Kondisi tersebut menimbulkan banyak gangguan sinyal sehingga komunikasi antara ground control system dan UAV menjadi lebih singkat. 433MHz bukanlah teknologi baru untuk sistem komunikasi, frekuensi ini biasanya digunakan untuk berita radio dan data logging jarak jauh. Frekuensi 433 MHz jarang digunakan untuk transmisi paket data yang besar karena frekuensi 433 MHz memiliki kecepatan transfer data yang lambat namun memiliki jarak transfer data yang jauh. Dari pengujian, kami mendapatkan peningkatan jangkauan kendali lebih dari dua kali lipat dengan Lo-Ra 433 MHz dibandingkan dengan modul 2,4 GHz.Kata Kunci: Sistem Kontrol, Lo-Ra, Sistem Jarak Jauh, Frekuensi Radio, Sistem Trnsmisi, UAV
 “E32-433T30D User Manual SX1278 433MHz 1W DIP Wireless Module.” F. Adelantado, X. Vilajosana, P. Tuset-Peiro, B. Martinez, J. Melia-Segui, and T. Watteyne, “Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 9, 2017, doi: 10.1109/MCOM.2017.1600613. C. Downey, “Understanding Wireless Range Calculations,” Wat Komt Hier, 2013. Y. Esye and D. Haryanto, “RANCANG BANGUN RANGKAIAN PENERIMA FREQUENCY HOPPING SPREAD SPECTRUM ( FHSS ) DENGAN DEMODULASI DIGITAL AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING (ASK).” “COMPUTER SIMULATION MODULATION-DEMODULATIN ANALOG AND DIGITAL.” A. H. Jebril, A. Sali, A. Ismail, and M. F. A. Rasid, “Overcoming limitations of LoRa physical layer in image transmission,” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 18, no. 10, 2018, doi: 10.3390/s18103257. S. Rauh, J. Robert, M. Schadhauser, A. Heuberger, and A. U. Erlangen-nuremberg, “LPWAN Occupancy Model Parameter Identification for License Exempt sub-GHz Frequency Bands,” pp. 111–114, 2018. P. Dani, P. Adi, and A. Kitagawa, “Performance Evaluation of E32 Long Range Radio Frequency 915 MHz based on Internet of Things and Micro Sensors Data,” vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 38–49, 2019. M. G. al Zamil, M. Rawashdeh, S. Samarah, M. S. Hossain, A. Alnusair, and S. M. M. Rahman, “An Annotation Technique for In-Home Smart Monitoring Environments,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 1471–1479, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2779158. J. P. Tovar-Soto, C. F. Pareja-Figueredo, O. L. García-Navarrete, and L. C. Gutiérrez-Martínez, “Performance evaluation of lora technology for implementation in rural areas,” DYNA (Colombia), vol. 88, no. 216, 2021, doi: 10.15446/dyna.v88n216.88258. G. Ferre and A. Giremus, “LoRa Physical Layer Principle and Performance Analysis,” in 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems, ICECS 2018, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ICECS.2018.8617880. P. Edward, M. El-Aasser, M. Ashour, and T. Elshabrawy, “Interleaved Chirp Spreading LoRa as a Parallel Network to Enhance LoRa Capacity,” IEEE Internet Things J, vol. 8, no. 5, 2021, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2020.3027100. T. Handaru, “PROGRAM SIMULASI SINYAL CHIRP RADAR,” 2007. P. K. Manoharan et al., “Low Frequency Radio Experiment (LORE),” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2016, vol. 120, no. 1. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/120/1/012014. N. Blenn and F. Kuipers, “LoRaWAN in the Wild : Measurements from The Things Network”. H. Jiang, C. Cai, X. Ma, Y. Yang, and J. Liu, “Smart Home Based on WiFi Sensing: A Survey,” IEEE Access, vol. 6. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 13317–13325, Mar. 06, 2018. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2812887. A. Sutinjo, “Low-frequency radio astronomy engineering in Western Australia,” 2018. doi: 10.23919/radio.2017.8242257. M. Iqbal, A. Y. M. Abdullah, and F. Shabnam, “An Application Based Comparative Study of LPWAN Technologies for IoT Environment,” in 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium, TENSYMP 2020, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TENSYMP50017.2020.9230597.
Please find the rights and licenses in the Fountain of Informatics Journal (FIJ). By submitting the article/manuscript of the article, the author(s) agree with this policy. No specific document sign-off is required.
The non-commercial use of the article will be governed by the Creative Commons Attribution license as currently displayed on Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
2. Author(s)' Warranties
The author warrants that the article is original, written by the stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author, and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).
3. User/Public Rights
FIJ's spirit is to disseminate articles published are as free as possible. Under the Creative Commons license, FIJ permits users to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work for non-commercial purposes only. Users will also need to attribute authors and FIJ on distributing works in the journal and other media of publications. Unless otherwise stated, the authors are public entities as soon as their articles got published.
4. Rights of Authors
Authors retain all their rights to the published works, such as (but not limited to) the following rights;
- Copyright and other proprietary rights relating to the article, such as patent rights,
- The right to use the substance of the article in own future works, including lectures and books,
- The right to reproduce the article for own purposes,
- The right to self-archive the article (please read out deposit policy),
- The right to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the article's published version (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal (Jurnal Optimasi Sistem Industri).
If the article was jointly prepared by more than one author, any authors submitting the manuscript warrants that he/she has been authorized by all co-authors to be agreed on this copyright and license notice (agreement) on their behalf, and agrees to inform his/her co-authors of the terms of this policy. FIJ will not be held liable for anything that may arise due to the author(s) internal dispute. FIJ will only communicate with the corresponding author.
Being an open accessed journal and disseminating articles for free under the Creative Commons license term mentioned, author(s) aware that FIJ entitles the author(s) to no royalties or other fees.
FIJ will publish the article (or have it published) in the journal if the article’s editorial process is successfully completed. FIJ's editors may modify the article to a style of punctuation, spelling, capitalization, referencing, and usage that deems appropriate. The author acknowledges that the article may be published so that it will be publicly accessible and such access will be free of charge for the readers as mentioned in point 3.