Review of Endophytic Fungi as Biocontrol Agents Against Plant Pathogen

Noorkomala Sari

Abstract

Fungi endofit adalah fungi yang hidup pada inter dan intra sel tumbuhan sehat dan tanpa menunjukkan gejala penyakit pada tumbuhan tersebut. Hubungan endofit dengan tumbuhan inangnya direferensikan sebagai hubungan mutualisme dimana fungi endofit menghasilkan mikotoksin dan metabolit sekunder lainnya yang mengakibatkan perubahan fisiologi dan biokimia sel inang sehingga menghambat perkembangan patogen tumbuhan dan fungi endofit mendapatkan nutrisi dari tumbuhan inangnya. Karena kemampuan fungi endofit yang menginduksi respon metabolisme tumbuhan inang sehingga tumbuhan menjadi resisten terhadap patogen tanaman, telah banyak dilakukan penelitian menggunakan fungi endofit dengan cara diinokulasikan pada tanaman komoditas untuk pengendalian persebaran penyakit pada lahan pertanian. Endofit sebagai agen biokontrol, memiliki pengaruh yang besar dalam meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman dan disarankan oleh beberapa ahli ekologi tanaman sebagai biopestisida dalam mewujudkan pertanian berkelanjutan yang ramah lingkungan.

Keywords

interaksi; metabolit sekunder; sistemik ketahanan terinduksi; penyakit

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