Imam al-Syāfi’ī dalam Kesarjanaan Barat: Tesis Schachtian dan Kritik Terhadapnya

Ayub Ayub

Abstract

 

Abstract

 

Based on his study on the works of Imam al-Shafi'i, Joseph Schacht (d. 1969) formulated a thesis that raises doubts about the authenticity of the hadith narrations and the reliability of traditional Islamic historiography.This article will discuss the thesis and its responses in the context of the methodological assumptions of Western scholarship. Therefore, this paper will firstly explore these assumptions and methods before demonstrating their application in the debates of Western scholars about Imam al-Syafi'ī, both those who reject the reliability of the Islamic tradition and those who support it. This research is a literature research with content analysis approach. This paper concludes that after Schacht, many Western scholars used his method or developed their own thesis on al-Shafi'ī in line with Schacht’s thesis, however, many scholars also have criticized the Schachtian theses and methodology. The dialectical process must be understood as an implication of the historical critical method they use. This method is built on assumptions that are the result of the historical experience of the Western civilization. In other words, the method is far from absolute and universal, and therefore open to criticism.

Keywords: Imam al-Syāfi’ī, Western scholarship on Islam, Islamic intellectual history, Orientalism

 

Abstrak

Makalah ini akan mediskusikan posisi Imam al-Syāfi’ī (w. 820) dalam tesis-tesis sarjana Barat dan implikasinya dalam narasi sejarah intelektual Islam. Salah satu narasi utama dalam kesarjanaan Barat yang muncul dari kajian terhadap Imam al-Syāfi’ī adalah adanya anggapan yang meragukan autentisitas hadis dan realibilitas historiografi tradisional. Tesis tersebut terekspresikan dengan tegas dalam karya-karya Joseph Schacht (w. 1969). Artikel ini akan mendiskusikan tesis tersebut dan respon-respon terhadapnya dalam konteks asumsi-asumsi metodologis kesarjanaan Barat. Oleh karena itu, makalah ini juga akan mengurai asumsi dan metode tersebut sebelum menunjukan pengaplikasiannya dalam perdebatan sarjana Barat tentang sosok Imam al-Syāfi’ī, baik yang mereka yang menolak realibilitas tradisi Islam maupun yang mendukungnya. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian literatur dengan pendekatan konten analisis. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa setelah Schacht, banyak peneliti yang memakai metode atau mengembangkan tesisnya tentang al-Syafi’i, namun demikian banyak pula peneliti yang mengajukan kritik. Proses dialektika tersebut harus dipahami sebagai implikasi dari metode kritik historis yang mereka gunakan. Metode ini dibangun di atas asumsi-asumsi yang merupakan hasil dari pengalaman sejarah Barat. Dengan kata lain, metode tersebut bukan sesuatu yang mutlak dan universal sehingga tetap terbuka untuk dikritisi.

Kata Kunci: Imam al-Syāfi’ī, kajian Islam di Barat, sejarah intelektual Islam, Orientalisme  

Keywords

Imam al-Syāfi’ī, kajian Islam di Barat, sejarah intelektual Islam, Orientalisme

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