• Ramdhan Muhaimin
  • Nizar Umar
  • Dinda Ayuningtyas




Islamic World, Neorealism, Geopolitics, United States, China


This article discusses the dynamics of the rivalry between the United States and China in the last decade, as well as its influence on the Islamic world. Globally, the increasing of China’s influence has fueled tensions with the United States (US). Especially since China declared a project of global economic-politic called One Belt One Road (OBOR) in 2013. The ‘New Cold War’ between US and China today has spread to various issues, from trade, cyber-technology, military, and health. This study uses a qualitative method in which content analysis is based on data obtained from news documents, articles and reports. From this research, it is concluded that the dynamic phenomenon in the Islamic world, such as the normalization of Arab-Israeli, the joining of Iran to the SCO, the issue of the Uighur Muslim ethnicity, the Rohingya ethnic minority, the rejection of China's vaccine, and the declaration of defense of AUKUS alliances. Based on the neorealism approach in this study, the dynamics of the international structure affect the behavior of Muslim countries in making their rational choices.


Abbas, M. (2012). Globalization and the Muslim World. Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN: 2289-8077), 8(June), 275–295. https://doi.org/10.31436/jia.v8i0.261

Abueish, T. (2021). Saudi Arabia’s health ministry denies approving Sinopharm, Sinovac COVID-19 vaccines. https://english.alarabiya.net/coronavirus/2021/08/08/Saudi-Arabia-s-health-ministry-denies-rumors-of-COVID-19-vaccine-deaths

Alexander Ward, P. M. (2021). Biden announces joint deal with U.K. and Australia to counter China. https://www.politico.com/news/2021/09/15/biden-deal-uk-australia-defense-tech-sharing-511877

Anak Agung Banyu Perwita, Y. M. Y. (2005). Pengantar Ilmu Hubungan Internasional. Remaja Rosdakarya.

Andika, M. T. (2020). Sikap Lunak OKI terhadap China dan Isu Pelanggaran HAM Muslim Uighur. 49. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342151201

ArabNews. (2021). Saudi Arabia to lift entry ban from six countries, including Egypt, Pakistan and India | Arab News. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1975446/saudi-arabia

Arbar, T. F. (2020). Negara Muslim Ini Dukung China di Laut China Selatan, Kenapa? https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20201203074054-4-206472/negara-muslim-ini-dukung-china-di-laut-china-selatan-kenapa

BBC. (2019). Trump menuntut keadilan terkait hilangnya 60.000 pabrik AS sejak China masuk WTO - BBC News Indonesia. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/dunia-49816664

Cahyani, D. R. (2021). 5 Alasan China Mesra dengan Taliban, dari Soal Uighur Hingga Jalur OBOR -. https://dunia.tempo.co/read/1504725/5-alasan-china-mesra-dengan-taliban-dari-soal-uighur-hingga-jalur-obor?page_num=2

CGTN. (2021a). China calls for solidarity among SCO members as the bloc turns 20 - CGTN. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-09-17/Xi-Jinping-addresses-SCO-meeting-via-video-link-13D3zqRd34k/index.html

CGTN. (2021b). Chinese, Indonesian FMs concerned over AUKUS nuclear sub deal. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-10-30/Chinese-Indonesia-FMs-concerned-over-AUKUS-nuclear-sub-deal-14M5H3v4Ve8/index.html

Davis, J. W. (2000). Threats and promises: The pursuit of international influence. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Delanova, M. O. (2021). Dampak Pakta Pertahanan Trilateral Aukus Terhadap Kondisi Regional Indo-Pasifik. Jurnal Dinamika Global, 6(02), 259–285. https://doi.org/10.36859/jdg.v6i2.408

DeutscheWelle. (2021). Ayatollah Khamenei Desak Dunia Arab Batalkan Normalisasi Dengan Israel. https://www.dw.com/id/imam-khamenei-desak-dunia-arab-batalkan-normalisasi-israel/a-59619139

Devonshire-Ellis, C. (2020). Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Moscow Summit Implies A New Eastern Bloc - Russia Briefing News. Russia Breafing. https://www.russia-briefing.com/news/russia-the-pragmatic-dealmaker-as-shanghai-cooperation-organisation-moscow-summit-implies-a-new-eastern-bloc.html/

Dugis, V. (2016). Teori Hubungan Internasional; Perspektif-Perspektif Klasik. www.csgsunair.org

Eslake, S. (2017). China’s “ Belt and Road Initiative ” and Its Implications for Global Development. 6(June), 1–52. https://doi.org/10.22679/avs.2021.6.1.004

Ezra Sihite, & Adrianjara, D. (2019). KTT Kuala Lumpur Dicap Tandingan OKI, Mahathir Angkat Bicara. https://www.viva.co.id/amp/arsip/1252371-ktt-kuala-lumpur-dicap-tandingan-oki-mahathir-angkat-bicara

Gazeta, F. N. (1998). Chinese Defense White Paper 1998. 1998(May), 1998.

Güney, N. A., & Korkmaz, V. (2021). A new alliance axis in the eastern mediterranean cold war: What the abraham accords mean for mediterranean geopolitics and turkey. Insight Turkey, 23(1), 61–76. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2021231.6

Güven, A. (2021). Iran’s Membership of Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Expectations and Possible Scenarios - İRAM Center | Center for Iranian Studies in Ankara. https://iramcenter.org/en/irans-membership-of-shanghai-cooperation-organization-expectations-and-possible-scenarios/

Hendrajit. (2019). Bergabungnya Iran Dengan SCO, Inspirasi Terciptanya Aliansi Geopolitik Eropa-Asia. https://theglobal-review.com/bergabungnya-iran-dengan-sco-inspirasi-terciptanya-aliansi-geopolitik-eropa-asia/

IISS. (2020). The Abraham Accords: Israel–Gulf Arab normalisation.

J W Creswell. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Sage Publication.


Jaramaya, R. (2020). Bahrain: Normalisasi dengan Israel Lindungi Kepentingan Negara. Republika. https://republika.co.id/berita/qgp0x8377/bahrain-normalisasi-dengan-israel-lindungi-kepentingan-nega

KoranSINDO. (2021). Indonesia di Persimpangan Aukus. https://nasional.sindonews.com/read/549740/14/indonesia-di-persimpangan-aukus-1632456554

Kurniawan, Y., & Faraswacyen L.Gaol, D. (2021). Diplomasi Ekonomi Tiongkok melalui Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) di Asia Tenggara (2013 – 2018). Balcony, 5(1), 1–10. https://jom.fisip.budiluhur.ac.id/index.php/balcony/article/view/234

Loh, P. Y. (2019). The power of pragmatism - China’s belt and road to the Islamic world. https://kontinentalist.com/stories/the-power-of-pragmatism-chinas-belt-and-road-to-the-islamic-world

MacKuen, Michael B, Robert S Erikson, J. A. S. (1992). Peasants or bankers? The American electorate and the US economy. American Journal of Political Science, 86(3), 597–611. https://doi.org/10.2307/1964124

Mearsheimer, J. J. (2013). Structural Realism. In et al Tim Dunne (Ed.), International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Mohammed al-Ragawi, Mohamed Amin, and M. A. (2021). How US bribed Arab states to normalize ties with Israel. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/politics/how-us-bribed-arab-states-to-normalize-ties-with-israel/2108054

MOHAP. (2020). Vaccines against COVID-19 in the UAE - The Official Portal of the UAE Government. https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/justice-safety-and-the-law/handling-the-covid-19-outbreak/vaccines-against-covid-19-in-the-uae

Moniruzzaman, M. (2013). The Rise of China and Its Implications for the Muslim World. In Journal of Economic Cooperation and Development (Vol. 34).

Motamedi, M. (2021). What Iran’s membership of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation means | News | Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/9/19/iran-shanghai-cooperation-organisation

Na-Xi, L., Meng-Fang, H., & Shan-Bing, L. (2019). How the Belt and Road Initiative Can Help Strengthen the Role of the SCO and Deepen China’s Cooperation with Russia and the Countries of Central Asia. India Quarterly, 75(1), 56–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/0974928418821484

OIC. (2022). Organisation of Islamid Cooperation. https://www.oic-oci.org/page/?p_id=52&p_ref=26&lan=en

Podeh, E. (2018). Saudi Arabia and Israel: From secret to public engagement, 1948-2018. Middle East Journal, 72(4), 563–586. https://doi.org/10.3751/72.4.12

Pristiandaru, D. L. (2022). Indonesia Abstain, Ini Daftar Negara yang Dukung dan Tolak Penangguhan Rusia dari Dewan HAM. Kompas. https://www.kompas.com/global/read/2022/04/08/084500870/indonesia-abstain-ini-daftar-negara-yang-dukung-dan-tolak-penangguhan

Putri, N. A., Studi, P., Internasional, H., & Jakarta, H. (2021). Analisis Kepentingan China Dalam Mendukung Pakistan di Konflik Kashmir. 1, 111–119.

Reditya, T. H. (2022). Mengapa Banyak Pemimpin Afrika Mendukung Putin dan Invasi Rusia? Halaman 2 - Kompas.com. Kompas. https://www.kompas.com/global/read/2022/04/06/200000970/mengapa-banyak-pemimpin-afrika-mendukung-putin-dan-invasi-rusia-?page=2

Rousseau, D. L. (2007). Identity, Power, and Threat Perception A Cross-National Experimental Study. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51.

Rufinaldo, R. C. (2021). Iran pulihkan hubungan dengan China untuk lawan blok Barat. Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/id/dunia/iran-pulihkan-hubungan-dengan-china-untuk-lawan-blok-barat/2192422

Ryack, G. (2020). A Hitch in the Belt and Road in Myanmar – The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2020/12/a-hitch-in-the-belt-and-road-in-myanmar/

Safoora. (2019). Saudi prince defends China’s use of internment camps for Uighur Muslims. https://archive.siasat.com/news/saudi-prince-defends-chinas-use-internment-camps-uighur-muslims-1470526/

SCO, S. of. (2022). The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation| SCO. http://eng.sectsco.org/about_sco/

Singh, G. (2021). The ASEAN disunity over AUKUS | ORF. https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/the-asean-disunity-over-aukus/

Sorongan, T. P. (2022). Benarkah Banyak Warga Indonesia Dukung Rusia? CNBC Indonesia. https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20220311143110-4-322059/benarkah-banyak-warga-indonesia-dukung-rusia

Stein, J. G. (2017). Threat Perception In International Relations. University Surrey. https://www.surrey.ac.uk/politics/research/researchareasofstaff/isppsummeracademy/instructors-Threat-Perception-in-International-Relations

Sulistyawati, L. (2021). AS Ajak Lebih Banyak Negara Arab Normalisasi Hubungan Israel. Republika. https://republika.co.id/berita/qzpwt2366/as-ajak-lebih-banyak-negara-arab-normalisasi-hubungan-israel

Taylor-Lind, A. (2017). Burma: Pembantaian Secara Sistematis di Desa Rohingya | Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/id/news/2017/12/19/312590

Tilman, R. O. (1987). Southeast Asia And The Enemy Beyond: ASEAN Perceptions of External Threats. Westview.

Utomo, A. P. (2021). PM Australia Hubungi Presiden Jokowi, Berusaha Tenangkan Indonesia soal Kapal Selam Nuklir. https://www.kompas.com/global/read/2021/09/21/222657670/pm-australia-hubungi-presiden-jokowi-berusaha-tenangkan-indonesia-soal

VoAIndonesia. (2019). China: Investasi BRI Tingkatkan Struktur Ekonomi Pakistan. https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/china-investasi-bri-tingkatkan-struktur-ekonomi-pakistan/4867856.html

Wintour, P. (2021). As China threat rises, can Aukus alliance recover from rancorous birth? | Aukus | The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/nov/23/as-china-threat-rises-can-aukus-alliance-recover-from-rancorous-birth

Wirawan, M. K. (2020). Mengapa Negara-negara Arab Kini secara Resmi Mengakui Israel? Kompas. https://www.kompas.com/global/read/2020/12/16/070000470/mengapa-negara-negara-arab-kini-secara-resmi-mengakui-israel-?page=all

Yang, W. (2021). Improving defence capabilities is key for Taiwan to line up with Aukus, say experts. https://www.independent.co.uk/independentpremium/aukus-defence-taiwan-china-b1922106.html

Yoseph, Y. (2018). Uni Eropa Perpanjang Embargo Senjata Bagi Myanmar - Dunia Tempo.co. https://dunia.tempo.co/read/1083603/uni-eropa-perpanjang-embargo-senjata-bagi-myanmar