UPAYA ARAB SAUDI TERHADAP ORGANISASI KERJA SAMA ISLAM DALAM MENYELESAIKAN KONFLIK IRAN DAN ARAB SAUDI TAHUN 2013-2018

Emil Hikmawan, Gustri Eni Putri

Abstract


Middle East region can be realized as region which is susceptible with conflict. The conflict in Middle East which is increasingly needed constructive and sustainable effort in order to reduce a conflict potential. The problem that concern of international community is conflict involving Iran and Saudi Arabia after death penalty to Syekh Nimr Al-Nimr by Saudi Arabia government. Firstly, conflict that happened between Saudi Arabia and Iran caused by sectarianism dimension that’s mean Sunni and Shi’ah rivalry in Middle East. Then, sectarianism dimension can evolve into geopolitical competition that Saudi Arabia and Iran’s implication in Syria, Iraq and Yemen conflict. Therefore, Middle East conflict requires a peace settlement. Furthermore, the author who takes as Saudi Arabia government in order to solve Saudi Arabia and Iran conflict more likely using Islamic Cooperation Organization (OIC) involvement. Moreover, the author argue that OIC can be conflict resolution agent and Saudi Arabia has affected an OIC. On one hand, the Saudi Arabia was influencing an OIC as the largest country that invest a fund and his domination in OIC structure itself. Therefore, through his influence, Saudi Arabia more profited than military approach. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia has also utilized an OIC as instrument to gain its national interest such as to repress Iran’s influence in Middle East


Keywords


Geopolitics; Iran; Islamic Cooperation Organizations; Sau- di Arabia; Sectarianism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adib-Moghaddam, A. (2016, Januari 05). The tension between Iran and Saudi Arabia has little to do with religion. Retrieved Januari 18, 2018, from The Independent: http://www.independent. co.uk/voices/the-tension-between-iran-and-saudi-arabia-has-little-to-do-with-religion-a6797476.html

Ahmad, S. A. (2017). Impacts of Saudi Hegemony on the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). International Journal of Politic, Culture and Social, 09.

Ahmed, S. A. (2017). Impactsof SaudiHegemony on theOrganizationofIslamic Cooperation (OIC). International Journal of Politic, Cultural and Social, 1-3.

Al-Arabiya News. (2015, Mei 31). Gulf states offer $12.5 billion aid to Egypt. Retrieved Februari 01, 2018, from Al-Arabiya News: http://english.alarabiya.net/en/business/ economy/2015/03/13/Saudi-announces-4-billion-aid-package-to-Egypt.html

Allison. (1971). Essence of Decision : Explaning the Cuban Misile Crisis.

Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Allison, G. T. (1971). Essence of Decision : Explaning the Cuban Misile

Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Arab News. (2015, Mei 19). Egypt, Yemen are top recipients of Saudi aid. Retrieved Februari 01, 2018, from Arab News: http:// www.arabnews.com/news/748966

Arab News. (2016, November 18). OIC elects new secretary-general. Retrieved Februari 02, 2018, from Arab News: http://www. arabnews.com/node/1011981/saudi-arabia

Arhab, Y. (2016, Maret 12). Arab League labels Hezbollah a ‘terrorist’ group. Retrieved Januari 18, 2018, from Al-Jazeera: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/03/arab-league-labels-hezbollah-terrorist-group-160311173735737.html

Armandhanu, D. (2016, Januari 26). Sanksi Iran Dicabut, Perusahaan Barat Merapat . Retrieved Januari 23, 2018, from CNN Indonesia: https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ internasional/20160126114953-134-106705/sanksi-iran-dicabut-perusahaan-barat-merapat

Behn, S. (2016, Januari 05). Arab Saudi, Iran Putuskan Hubungan Diplomatik, Ketegangan di Timur Tengah Meningkat. Retrieved Januari 16, 2018, from VOA Indonesia: https:// www.voaindonesia.com/a/arab-saudi-iran-putuskan-hubungan-diplomatik-ketegangan-di-timur-tengah-meningkat/3131593.html

Bharwana. (2017, Desember 21). Saudi Arabia increases defence budget. Retrieved Februari 27, 2018, from Pakistan Defence: https:// defence.pk/pdf/threads/saudi-arabia-increases-defence-budget.534605/

Black, I. (2015, April 05). Sunni v Shia: why the conflict is more political than religious. Retrieved Januari 10, 2018, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/05/sunni-shia-why-conflict-more-political-thanreligious-sectarian-middle-east

Boone, M. T. (2012). Rivalry in the Middle East : Saudi Arabia and Iran.

New York: Nova Science Publisher.

Borgotta, E. F. (1992). Encyclopedia of Sociology. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Budiardjo, M. (2013). Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Politik. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

DePetris, D. R. (2017, Mei 19). The 5 Deadliest Weapons That Saudi Arabia Has In Its Military. Retrieved Februari 27, 2018, from The National Interest: http://nationalinterest.org/blog/ the-buzz/the-5-deadliest-weapons-saudi-arabia-has-its-military-20752?page=2

Destradi, S. (2008). Empire, hegemony, and leadership: developing a research framework for the study of regional powers. Hamburg: Institute of Global and Area Studies.

Dorsey, J. M. (2016, Juli 29). Creating Frankenstein: The Impact of Saudi Export Ultra-Conservatism in South Asia. Retrieved Februari 01, 2018, from Social Science Research Network: https:// papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2813898

Erickson, A. (2017, Desember 20). What’s behind the feud between Saudi Arabia and Iran? Power. Retrieved Januari 23, 2018, from The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost. com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/12/20/whats-behind-the-feud-between-saudi-arabia-and-iran-power/?utm_term=. d43bd88e1017

Ezzat, D. (2016, April 16). OIC summit bolsters Saudi influence at expense of rival Iran. Retrieved Februari 05, 2018, from Ahram Online: http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/2/8/199717/ World/Region/OIC-summit-bolsters-Saudi-influence-at-expense-of-.aspx

Fabian, K. P. (2016, Januari 06). The Iran-Saudi Confrontation: Who will win in the end? Retrieved Februari 05, 2018, from Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses: https:// idsa.in/idsacomments/the-iran-saudi-confrontation_ kpfabian_060116

Fauzi, G. A. (2017). KETERLIBATAN INDONESIA DALAM PRA MEDIASI ARAB SAUDI DAN IRAN TAHUN 2016. e-Journal Hubungan Internasional, 1201-1204.

Fisher, M. (2016, Januari 04). The cold war between Saudi Arabia and Iran that’s tearing apart the Middle East, explained. Retrieved Januari 18, 2018, from The Vox News: https://www.vox. com/2016/1/4/10708682/sunni-shia-iran-saudi-arabia-war

Fleurant, P. D.-F. (2016). Trends in international arms transfer, 2015. Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

FM. (2016, Januari 04). Saudi Arabia and Iran. Retrieved Januari 18, 2018, from International Relations Organizations: http:// internationalrelations.org/saudi-arabia-and-iran/

Galtung, C. W. (2007). Handbook of Peace and Conflict. New York:

Routledge.

Global Security Organizations. (2018, Januari 03). Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism (IMAFT). Retrieved Februari 02, 2018, from Global Security Organizations: https://www. globalsecurity.org/military/world/int/ima.htm

Gravingholt, S. B. (2016). The securitization of foreign aid. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Guzanski, Y. (2015, Juli 22). Saudi Arabia and the Nuclear Agreement with Iran. Retrieved Januari 23, 2018, from The Institute for National Security Studies: http://www.inss.org.il/ publication/saudi-arabia-and-the-nuclear-agreement-with-iran/

Hannah. (2016, Agustus 26). Saudi Arabia Strikes Back. Retrieved Februari 02, 2018, from Foreign Policy: http://foreignpolicy. com/2016/08/16/saudi-arabia-strikes-back-3/

Hannah, J. (2016, Mei 16). Foreign Policy. Retrieved Februari 02, 2018, from For Middle East Peace, Look to Israel’s Arab Partners: http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/16/on-middle-east-peace-do-this-not-that/

Hausken, K. (2016). Cost benefit analysis of war. International Journal of Conflict Management, 454-459.

Haynes, J. (2001). Transnational religious actors and international politics. Third World Quartely, 143-158.

Ighani, H. (2016, Oktober 25). Managing the Saudi-Iran Rivalry

. Retrieved Januari 18, 2018, from Council on Foreign

Relations: https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/ pdf/2016/10/Workshop_Report_CPA_Saudi_Iran_Rivalry_ OR.pdf

Ihsanoglu, E. (2010). The Islamic Wolrd in the New Century : The Organizationof the Islamic Conference. London: Husrt & Company.

Jawan, S. N. (2013). Geopolitics of the Islam World and world leadership in the post-Cold War geopolitical developments. Transcience, 1-12.

Johnson. (2010, Juni 29). The Organization of the Islamic Conference. Retrieved Februari 05, 2018, from Council on Foreign Relations: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/organization-islamic-conference

Johnson, T. (2010, Juni 29). The Organization of the Islamic Conference. Retrieved Februari 01, 2018, from Council on Foreign Relations: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/ organization-islamic-conference

Jonge, J. D. (2012). Rethinking Rational Choice Theory : A Companion on Rational and Moral Action. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kechichian, J. A. (2016, Agustus 31). Saudi foreign aid reaches new heights. Retrieved Februari 01, 2018, from Gulf News: http:// gulfnews.com/opinion/thinkers/saudi-foreign-aid-reaches-new-heights-1.1888699

Matthiesen, T. (2012). A “Saudi Spring?”: The Shi’a Protest Movement in the Eastern Province 2011—2012. Middle East Journal, 628-630.

Ngai, C. (2016, Januari 12). Tumbling oil trades below $30 a barrel for first time in 12 years. Retrieved Februari 11, 2018, from The Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-oil/ tumbling-oil-trades-below-30-a-barrel-for-first-time-in-12-years-idUSKCN0UQ02220160112

OIC. (2018, Februari 05). OIC Charter. Retrieved Februari 05, 2018, from OIC: https://www.oic-oci.org/page/?p_id=53&p_ ref=27&lan=en

O’Toole, M. (2017, Agustus 15). Is the time right for Saudi-Iran rapprochement? Retrieved Februari 12, 2018, from Al-Jazeera: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/08/time-saudi-iran-rapprochement-170815083034894.html

Patnistik, E. (2016, Januari 06). Mengapa Iran dan Arab Saudi Bermusuhan ? Retrieved Januari 10, 2018, from Kompas: http:// internasional.kompas.com/read/2016/01/06/09171261/ Mengapa.Iran.dan.Arab.Saudi.Bermusuhan.

Paul Anand, P. K. (2009). The Handbook of Rational and Social Choice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rafael Witteck, T. A. (2013). The Handbook of Rational Choice Social Research. California: Stanford University.

Rana, S. (2016, Maret 11). Saudis to give Pakistan $122m in aid. Retrieved Februari 02, 2018, from The Express Tribune Pakistan: https://tribune.com.pk/story/1063733/saudis-to-give-pakistan-122m-in-aid/

Reimann, J. (2016, Februari 05). Saudi Arabia vs. Iran: Predominance in the Middle East. Retrieved Februari 04, 2018, from Foreign Policy Juornal: https://www.foreignpolicyjournal. com/2016/02/05/saudi-arabia-vs-iran-predominance-in-the-middle-east/

Samosir, H. A. (2016, Januari 05). Sejarah Panjang Perselisihan Arab Saudi dan Iran. Retrieved Januari 17, 2018, from CNN Indonesia: https://www.cnnindonesia.com/internasional/ 20160105133321-120-102293/sejarah-panjang-perselisihan-arab-saudi-dan-iran/

Samosir, H. A. (2016, Januari 05). Sejarah Panjang Perselisihan Arab Saudi dan Iran. Retrieved Januari 10, 2018, from CNN Indonesia: https://www.cnnindonesia.com/internasional/ 20160105133321-120-102293/sejarahpanjang-perselisihan-arab-saudi-dan-iran/

Samuel, K. L. (2013). The OIC, the UN, and Counter-Terrorism Law-Making : Conflicting or Cooperative Legal Orders? UK: Hart Publishing.

Setyanti, C. A. (2016, Januari 05). Jumlah Negara yang Putus Hubungan dengan Iran Semakin Banyak . Retrieved Januari 16, 2018, from CNN Indoesia: https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ internasional/20160105051300-120-102163/jumlah-negara-yang-putus-hubungan-dengan-iran-semakin-banyak/

Shahab, A. &. (2017). Impacts of Saudi Hegemony on the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). International Journal of Politics, Culture and Social, 08.

Shahryarifar, S. (2016). A Defence on the Prominence of Rational Actor Model within Foreign Policy Analysis. Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 25-26.

Spencer, R. (2015, Juli 14). Israel and Saudi Arabia present united front over Iran deal. Retrieved Februari 02, 2018, from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/ middleeast/iran/11739349/Israel-and-Saudi-Arabia-present-united-front-over-Iran-deal.html

Syed, J. E. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Toumi, H. (2012, September 10). Scholarship givento promote Islamic Studies. Retrieved Februari 01, 2018, from Gulf News: http:// gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/scholarships-given-to-promote-islamic-studies-1.1072381

UN News Center . (2016, November 17). UN and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation must cooperate on resolving conflicts, Security Council told. Retrieved Februari 05, 2018, from UN News Center: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story. asp?NewsID=55590#.WnfTpXcQ_IV

United State Institute of Peace. (2016, April 15). Iran and Islamic Conference: Tensions at the Summit . Retrieved Februari 05, 2018, from The Iran Primer: http://iranprimer.usip.org/ blog/2016/may/23/iran-and-islamic-conference-tensions-summit

White House. (2017, Mei 23). Joint Statement Between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States of America. Retrieved Februari 02, 2018, from The White House : https://www. whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/joint-statement-kingdom-saudi-arabia-united-states-america/

Zuhur, S. (2011). Saudi Arabia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21111/dauliyah.v3i2.2504

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 60 times
PDF - 187 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Web
Analytics

View My Stats 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.