corn cultivation techniques

Corn is one of the varieties of crops that often consumed by people in Indonesia. Corn is the alternative food that best replaces the rice because the average community in Indonesia consume using rice material that is made of rice. Corn is also a source of carbohydrate after rice. Corn is one of the commodity of food crops that has an important role in the development of agriculture and the economy of Indonesia. Corn commodities have many functions, both for food and feed. The use of corn to feed reaches 50% of the total needs that exist. Many uses can be done using corn plants in addition to food but also can be used as ingredients such as flour, corn boiled, roasted corn and others. Another important advantage of corn plants can also be processed in the form of flour, snacks or used for feedstock raw materials. Almost all parts of the corn plant can be used for human needs either directly or indirectly. In these years the corn processing industry is experiencing a high development so it has an impact on demand for growing corn material.

Corn is top commodity

In the last five years that is (2000-2004), the need for corn like the raw material of feed industry, food and beverage continues to increase until it reaches 10-15 per year. Therefore, the availability of corn raw material is very important to the existing industry to improve human needs in Indonesia. To increase the production of the national level of corn, both with the expansion of planting areas and the expansion of the use of superior seeds, was able to increase the production of corn from 6.26 million tonnes in the year 1991 to 10.91 million tonnes in 2003. But with the amount of large production of the jaugn is still not able to meet the needs of the existing, so Indonesia still imports. National corn production is expected to rise 4.24% per year, so in 2009 the estimate reaches 13.98 million tonnes and the year 2015 reaches 17.93 million tonnes. It can thus cover the need for a constantly increasing length. For the results of corn crops in general can be influenced by some important factors that are still not optimal dissemination and use of superior varieties in the community who do cultivation, the use of untimely fertilizer, the use of technology and the way of planting that is still not good and other. One solution in the effort to increase the production of corn crop in Indonesia by means of improving the living standard of farmers and fulfilling the market demand so that it is necessary to increase the production of corn by meeting the standards of both the quality and quantity of each variety produced. However, all this needs to be done by knowing or understanding the characteristics of the corn plants that are cultivated so that it will impact on increased production levels.


In the event of laboratory production technology of food crops and plantations about corn cultivation technology, there are several objectives that INGIM achieved among others: For Mrmahami and apply the principle of corn production technique. To practice the skills in analyzing the components of corn production technology


Corn plant is one of the most important crops in Indonesia after rice because corn currently serves as a material for consumption and feed. Therefore, the demand for corn is always increasing, so that Indonesia imports the number tends to always increase to cover the high demand (Suwignyo,2010). The economic production of corn is a corn seed that is a potential source of carbohydrates to fulfill for humans. On the difference of nutritional content of corn can be seen the color of yellow seed and white seed with A nutritional vitamin A (Polnaya. 2012). Corn plants have a high production potential especially in the irrigation conditions jikadicompare with other crops. The productivity of most corn depends on the need and management of its nutritional especially those of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (Quaye,2009). The Corn plant (Zea mays L.) is a Monocious plant based on a separate male flower with a female flower in one plant. The corn plant is included in the C4 plant which is able to adapt well on growth limiting factors and results. The advantages of such properties are physiological and anatomical properties that greatly affect the outcome of production. Classification of corn plants is as follows: Kingdom: Plantae Division: Spermatophyta Sub Division: Angiospermae Class: Monocotiledonae Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Genus: Zea Species: Zea Mays L.

2.2 Morphology of corn plant

The leaves on corn with a characteristic of berbuku-buku in the stem, while the stem of the corn leaf envelops the stem. The length of corn leaves is about 30-150 cm and 4-15 wide with a very hard corn leaf bone. The leaf sheet edges are smooth and the wave shape. The number of corn leaves per plant varies from 12-18 strands. 2.2.2 Flowers The corn is a monocious plant because the male flower is formed at the tip of the stem, while the female flower is located in the middle of the stem. In one plant, the male and female flowers are secured. Corn plants are protrandy, then corn has a cross pollination properties. 2.2.3 Stem For the number of corn bars that amounts to about 10-40 sections, corn is generally not branched except when it arises from the base of the stem, which occurs in sweet corn. Stem length about 60-300 cm depending on the type of corn and plant age. 2.2.4 Rooting The root-type corn-rooting system is that of the seminal roots that grow downwards at the time the seeds germinate, then the coronal roots that grow upwards from the stem tissues after the plumula appears, and the air roots grow from the books above the ground. 2.2.5 Cob and Seed Corn plants have one or two cob, depending on the varieties. Corn cob is covered with kelobot leaves. Each cob consists of 10-16 rows of seeds that are always even. Corn seeds lie in a lengthened cob, Padatongkol stored corn seeds that stick tightly while on the corn fruit is a hair that extends to the exit of the wrapper (Aak,1997). 2.3 Terms of growing corn crop The position of Indonesian country in the tropics and as an island country is prone to climate change. The impact of the occurrence of global warming will lead to the improvement of the sea-water advance so that it will have a huge influence is around (Suwignyo,2010). With this problem, it does not matter for corn plants can grow on a variety of soil even on dry soil conditions. The corn plant can adapt to soils with soil type sandy clay or clay soils with a pH of about 6-8. The optimal growth temperature is 24-30 °c. Then the good rainfall is 85-200 mm/month. In the flowering phase and the replenishment of corn plant seeds need to get enough water but not excessive. Corn plants can sometimes also grow in moderately high rainfall and rough topography. This forest/Meadow montane is perfect for corn, exotic vegetables (carrots, cabbage, cucumber and lettuce among others) (Sowunmi,2010). The ideal ground slope is less than 8%. The good height between 1000 m-1800 m above sea level with an optimum altitude of 50-600 m above sea level. 2.4 Cultivation of corn crops Corn plant is a plant that is able to grow with all sorts of good condition dry corn plants can grow up to harvest. Corn does not require excessive soil requirements so that corn plant is suitable in planting in Indonesia.

Land Preparation

Here are the stages of corn cultivation: 2.4.1 Land Preparation The purpose of land preparation activities to prepare the land that will be planted by corn seeds. The land preparation mechanism relies heavily on soil physique such as soil texture. Heavy textured soils need intensive processing. On the contrary, light textured soils can be done with conservation ground techniques such as minimum ground sports (OTM) or without ground (TOT). For the location of good corn plants is not flooded but has enough water content. Moreover, the selection of the location for the corn plant is adjusted to the growing condition (Rochani, 2007). Yudianto (2020). Budidaya jagung di tanah pasir. [ONLINE] Available at: . [Last Accessed 20 june 2020]. 2.4.2 Planting Planting activity is the process of transplantation of corn seeds into the plant medium (soil). To obtain high production results on corn Dihaapwill be adjusted the number of populations of corn seeds with an area of planting. In general, the recommended planting density is 66,667 plants/ha. Can be achieved with a line planting distance of 75 cm, and 20 cm in rows with one plant per hole, or distance between lines 40 cm with two plants per hole. 2.4.3. Fertilization Low availability of nutrients in the soil impact the low level of soil fertility, which is very influential in the crops of corn. The addition of nutrients is necessary, because the nutrients contained in the soil that is not available will be added by fertilization (Tania,2012). Fertilization is the process of administering nutrients in the soil planted plants to be absorbed by plants so as to influence the outcome of production. Good fertilization in general is with a balanced fertilization to increase the production of corn. To grow well in plants need nutrients in the fertilization process that is an essential nutrient element that is; Macro nutrients, micro nutrients and other elements that function to increase the population of microorganisms (Tania,2012). Increasing the use of artificial fertilizer in plants will impact the less effective and efficient, and result in a less beneficial impact on the conditions in the soil. Therefore, the utilization of organic materials and biological fertilizers in soil nutrient management (Moelyohadi,2012) is increasingly required. In the soil there are usually elements of organic and inorganic P. P Organic and inorganic P is the main source of P for the plant Tanama one of them for corn (Soplanit,2012).
2.4.4 Irrigation For good irrigation in corn plants is not too in the matter as long as the plant gets water from the irrigation that suits its needs. However, if it is too excessive in giving, it will be the production of corn even corn plants to die because the roots are experiencing decay. 2.4.5 Harvesting Harvest activity is done at the time of the physiological seeds that are characterized by the presence of black coating on the seeds of corn. The signs of corn ready for the correct corn harvest are:
  • Age of the plant reaches maximum, namely after optimal seed filling.
  • yellow leaf and mostly start drying.
  • Klobot is dry or yellow.
  • When the Klobot is opened, the seeds look shiny and hard, when pressed with no scars on the seeds.
  • 25-35% seed water content.

2.5 Technology on corn plants

Achieving sustainable food security for the growing population can only be achieved through the intensification of food production on existing plant land using (Fabunmi,2012). One of the technologies to increase the productivity of a plant is using superior varieties. The superior varieties are one of the innovative technologies to increase the productivity of corn crops, either through increased potency of crop yields, as well as through increased tolerance and resistance to a variety of biotic and abiotic environmental adhesences. With the presence of superior varieties not only affect the corn plant only but to increase farmers ' income. Basically, corn varieties are classified into two varieties, among others:
  • ·Free-of-the-sari varieties
  • The free-to-use varieties are varieties whose seed can be worn constantly from each crop. The seeds used are certainly derived from plants or cob that have cirri-characteristic of the varieties.
  • · Hybrid varieties
  • Corn Varieties Hybrid is the first descendant (F1) of the cross between: varieties x varieties, varieties x strains, or strain x strains. The hybrid Arietas that will be outlined below are the first descendants of the crossing involving a strain. For the availability of high continuous varieties, it produces hybrid varieties, increased corn coupled with the demand of the federal government imposed to reduce imports of rice, corn and wheat (Oyewo,2008).
  • One type of hybrid corn is the national corn varieties (hybrid BISI-2) has the advantage of high yield potency, the harvest age is 103 days, resistant to Bulai disease and rotten Fruit, while the local corn varieas compared this variety is the deficiency that has a faster crop age of about 85 days (Polnaya,2012). The hybrid plant in the umumnyadapat grows and develops well when all conditions are fulfilled (Warisno,1998).