Lexemes Mean God In Al-Qur’an And Arabic Gospel: Semantic Analysis

Yuangga Kurnia Yahya



This research aimed to understanding the concept of divinity in Arabic culture through lexemes mean God which are used in al-Qur’an dan Arabic Gospel. Lexeme is the smallest unit of meaning that formed word. From lexem, words, phrases, clauses, and discourses are formed according Arabic’s concept of divinity. Formal objects of this research are the lexemes mean God in al-Qur’an and Arabic Gospels. All of data derived from al-Qur’an and the Four Gospels in New Testament. This research applied semantic approach, especially which talks about form and meaning, Brown-Yule’ s text and co-text, and Sapir-Whorf Hypothesa in relation between culture and language. The method used in this research is distributional method which is the lexeme and word as the deciding device. This research is a qualitative research caused of nature of the data that found and the data collection of this research purely based on library research. The process of this research passed three stages, data provision, data analysis with semantic approach, and the presentation of analysis result.

                The result of this research indicates that lexeme Allāh that means God has been known by Arabic people before the birth of Islam and Christian. This lexeme means the name of the highest God in Arabic’s polytheism and estimated that it used since Fifth century BC. Arabic Christians used this lexeme as the translation of “God” and referred to `The Only One God` 500 years before Muhammad’s birth. The lexemes mean God in al-Qur’an are Allāh, Rabb, Ilāh, Dhamīr (Anā, Anta, Huwa, and Nahnu), and the names of Allah (shifātu’l Lāh wa asmāu’l Lāh). As for the lexemes mean God in Arabic Gospels are Allāh, Rabb, Ilāh, Āb `father`, Yasū’ `Jesus`, a`r-Rūh al-Quds `Holy Spirit`, al-Ibn `Son`, as-Sayyid `Lord`, al-Mu’allim `Master`, al-Malik `King`, and Dhamīr (Anā, Anta, and Huwa). The lexeme Allāh, Rabb, and Ilāh are the similar lexemes found in both Holy Books, but these lexemes have some difference in word category, sintaxis function, and semantic role. Furthermore, other lexemes used in same purpose, that is presenting a more complete pictures and more familiar about their God.

Keywords: Lexeme, God’s Name, Arabic Gospels, Semantic, Divinity


Lexeme, God’s Name, Arabic Gospels, Semantic, Divinity

Full Text:



Abū’l Makārim, ‘Aliy. 2007. Al-Jumlah al-Ismiyyah. Kairo: Muassasah al-Mukhtār.

__________________. 2007. Al-Jumlah al-Fi’liyyah. Kairo: Muassasah al-Mukhtār

Armstrong, Karen. 2002. Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library.

Al-Asadi, Hasan ‘Abdu’l Ghaniy Jawwad. 2007. Mafhūmu’l Jumlah ‘inda Sibawaich. Lebanon: Dāru’l Kutub al- ‘Ilmiyyah.

Bālbaki, Munir dan Ramzi Munir Bālbaki. 2008. Al-Mawrid al- Hadīṡ, A Modern English-Arabic Dictionary. Beirut: Dāru’l ‘Ilm Li’l Malāyīn.

Bālbaki, Rohi. 1987. Al-Mawrid, A Modern Arabic-English Dictionary. Beirut: Dāru’l ‘Ilm Li’l Malāyīn.

____________. 2016. Al-Mawrid al- ‘Araby. Beirut: Dāru’l ‘Ilm Li’l Malāyīn.

Campo, Juan Eduardo. 2009. Encyclopedia of Islam. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Carroll, John B (Ed). 1978. Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Massachusetts: The M.I.T Press.

Crone, Patricia. 2016. The Qur’anic Pagans and Related Matters. Leiden: BRILL.

Der Spuy, Roelie van. 2015. The Understanding and the Use of the term Allah as a term for God in translations of the Bible and the Qur’an with specific reference to the Talysh speakers of Azerbaijan. Article in In die Skriflig Vol. 49 (1).

Dosick, Rabbi Wayne. 2012. The Real Name of God: Embracing the Full Essence of the Divine. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions.

Elmes, David. 2013. The Relationship between Language and Culture. Dalam jurnal National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya International Exchange and Language Education Center: Kanoya, Kagoshima, Japan.

Griffith, Sidney H. 2013. The Bible in Arabic: The Scriptures of the “People of The Book” in the Language of Islam. New Jersey: Pricenton University Press.

Hall, Isaac H. 1885. The Arabic Bible of Drs. Eli Smith and Cornelius V. A Van Dyck dalam Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 11, 1885.

Hitti, Philip K. 1970. History of The Arabs: Tenth Edition. London: Macmillan Education LTD.

Koentjaraningrat. 1981. Kebudayān, Mentalitas, dan Pembangunan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia.

Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 2008. Kamus Linguistik. Fourth Edition. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Massey, Joshua. 2004. Should Christians Use “Allah” in Bible Translation. Article in Evangelical Missions Quarterly 40, no. 3 July.

Michel, Thomas. 2001. Pokok-Pokok Iman Kristiani: Sharing Iman Seorang Kristiani dalam Dialog Antar Agama. Terj. Y.B. Adimassana dan F. Subroto Widjojo, S.J. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Monaghan, Patricia. 2010. Encyclopedia of Goddesses and Heroines, Vol. 1 and 2: Africa, Eastern Mediterranian and Asia. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Press.

Moshay, G.J.O. 1994. Who is this Allah?. Bucks: Dorchester House Publications.

Naude, Jacobus Adriān. 1971. The Name of Allah. Disertation of Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, University of Pretoria.

Paulien, John. 2011. The Unpredictable God: Creative Mission and The Biblical Testimony. Article in A man of passionate reflection: A Festschrift honoring Jerald Whitehouse, Andrews University Mission Studies–VĪI, Berrien Springs, Michigan.

Al-Rehaili, Abdullah M. 2003. Bukti Kebenaran Al-Qur’an. Translated Version. Yogyakarta: PADMA.

Rohmad, Yudi. 2010. Quranic Explorer (Kamus dan Indeks al-Qur’an). Ebook Version, Version 1.1.5 April 2010.

Sapir, Edward. 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt.

El-Shiekh, Ahmed Abdel Azim dan Mona Ahmad Saleh. 2011. Translation versus Transliteration of Religious Terms in Contemporary Islamic Discourse in Western Communities. Article in International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 1, No. 2, September 2011.

Somekh, Sasson. 1995. Biblical Echoes In Modern Arabic Literature. Article in Journal of Arabic Literature, Vol. 26, No 1/2, The Quest for Freedom in Modern Arabic Literature.

Thanasoulas, Dimitrios. 2001. The Importance of Teaching Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom. Jurnal Radical Pedagogy, Issue 3, Late Fall 2001.

Thomas, Kenneth J. 2001. Allah Translations of the Bible. Technical Papers dalam the Bible Translator Vol. 52: 3, Juli 2001.

Trimingham, J. Spencer. 1979. Christianity Among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times. London: Longman Group Limited.

Al-Yasū’I, Louis Ma’lūf. 2015. Al-Munjid fīl Lughah wal Adab wal ‘Ulūm. Beirut: al-Maṭba’ah al-Kātūlīkiyyah.

http://world.time.com/2013/10/15/allah-means-god-unless-youre-a-christian-in-malaysia/ accessed on November 6, 2017, 06: 27 WIB


accessed on November 6, 2017, 06:34 WIB


accessed on November 6, 2017, 06:32 WIB

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21111/lisanudhad.v5i2.2602

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 10 times
PDF - 10 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View This Journal Stats