Age Sulistyoningsih, Tiffany Setyo Pratiwi


An armed conflict between Israel and Palestine has been going since the Balfour Declaration and Resolution Number 181 of 1947 from Britain and the United Nations for the establishment of an Israeli state on Palestinian land. One attack called the Cast Lead operation by Israel against Palestine during December 27, 2008 to January 19, 2009 which killed many civilian casualties was a violation of Israel on the principle of proportionality in international humanitarian law. The principle stipulates that before the decision to make an attack is taken, consideration should be given to the military impact that might be experienced by civil society. This paper attempts to analyze Cast Lead operations from the principle of proportionality in Geneva Protocol I paragraph 51, 51 (5) and 48. This paper finds that Cast Lead attacks are a violation of the principle of proportionality in terms of time, focus, and attack technology. This study uses an explanative qualitative methodology and based on secondary data from books, journals, articles, magazines, laws document, and the internet.


Cast Lead Operation; Isarel; Palestina; Principle of Proportionality

Full Text:



Geneva Academy. (2014). What amounts to ‘a serious violation of international human rights law’?: An analysis of practice and expert opinion for the purpose of the 2013 Arms Trade Treaty. Jenewa: Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights.

Haryomataram. (1994). Hukum Humaniter. Jakarta: CV Radjawali.

Perwita dan Sabban. (2015). Kajian Konflik dan Perdamaian. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Suryana. Metodologi Penelitian: Model Praktis Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif (Buku Ajar Perkulahan). Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. (2010).

Zulkifli. (2009). Ketika Zionis Menyerbu Gaza: Catatan Harian Israel ke Jalur Gaza. Jakarta: Milestone Publishing House.

Dokumen Hukum

International Committee of the Red Cross. Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of ohe Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949. Jenewa.

United Nations. Resolution 181 (II) – Future Government of Palestine. Retrieved from


Brown, Bernard L. (1976). The Proportionality Principle in the Humanitarian Law of Warfare: Recent Efforts at Codification. Cornell International Law Journal: Vol. 10, Iss. 1, Article 5.

Daphné Richemond-Barak dan Ayal Feinberg. . (2016). The Irony of the Iron Dome: Intelligent Defense Systems, Law, and Security. Harvard National Security Journal: Vol. 7.

Javaid dan Shamim. (2014). Operation Cast Lead--Zion Fascism at Its Best. A Research Journal of South Asian Studies Vol. 29, No.2. University of Punjab.

Mulyadi, Mohammad. (2011). Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif Serta Pemikiran Dasar Menggabungkannya. Jurnal Studi Komunikasi dan Media Vol. 15, No. 1. DOI: 10.31445/jskm.2011.150106.

Newton, Michael A. (2018). Reframing the Proportionality Principle. Vanderbilt Journal Of Transnational Law: Vol. 51:867.


Al-Haq. (2009, August). 'Operation Cast Lead': A Statistical Analysis.

Jim Zanotti, dkk. Israel and Hamas: Conflict in Gaza (2008-2009). Congressioal Research Service.

United Nations. (2009). Human Rights in Palestine and Other Occupied Arab Territories - Report of the United Nations Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict.


McDonald, Avril. Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute.


Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12 August 1949 – Status of Ratification. (2019). Retrieved from


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.