The Administration of Halalan Tayyiban Products and Services in the Era of Islamic Caliphates under Hisbah Institution

Abdurrahman Raden Aji Haqqi

Abstract

A caliphate is a territory under the leadership of an Islamic steward known as a
caliph, a person considered a religious successor to the Muhammad and a leader of the
entire Muslim community. Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam which
developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three
major caliphates existed: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad
Caliphate (661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). The fourth major caliphate,
the Ottoman Caliphate, established by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. One of the duties
of a caliph is to administer and control the market which was included in Hisbah system.
The Hisbah is a religious institution under the authority of the state that appoints
people to carry out the responsibility of enjoining what is right, whenever people start to
neglect it, and forbidding what is wrong, whenever people start to engage in it. The
purpose of this is to safeguard society from deviance, protect the faith, and ensure the
welfare of the people in both religious and worldly manners according to the Law of
Allah. Allah has made it obligatory upon all Muslims to enjoin good and forbid wrongdoing
to the extent of their knowledge and abilities. Halalan Tayyiban products and services
were controlled under this institution. And this paper is an attempt to highlight such
control in the history of Islam. How were Halalan Tayyiban products and services
administered and controlled?

Keywords

Caliphate; Hisbah; Control; Halalan Tayyiban

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